- May 22, 2020
Abortionhas been a subject of discussion in many quarters with some peoplemaking an argument that it is more of the decision of an individual.Other people have reservations that the activity has seriousramifications on the general wellbeing of another life and,therefore, should be outlawed. In most cases, the sides picked bydifferent individuals on the issue mostly bases on the kind of viewand inner conviction that a given party has. It is, therefore, amoral issue because it is viewed as against the normal ways of lifein many societies (Perry, Bratman, & Fischer, 2015). It is oftenrelated to the kind of beliefs that people profess which could rangefrom religion to some philosophical fundamentalism that peoplenormally follow in their lives. In spite of the ongoing debate on theissues in several establishments, there is bound to be a continuedpractice of the same as people are expected to hold a differingperspective on the issue. The paper aims to analyze the moral issueof ‘abortion’ from Socrates, Weston, Kant, Utilitarianism,Relativism, Egoism philosophical perspectives.
Socrateswas a believer of knowledge and logic, where he made numerousarguments based on the aspect of these concepts. He indicated thatany person who would know what truthiness or good is would live in away that was desirable to him. About the issue of abortion, it isquite true that some people apply the argument of Socrates to make adecision on how they would go about the issue. Such people would, forinstance, find logic in stating that abortion is good (Kahane,Everett, Earp, Farias, & Savulescu, 2015). They could go toprovide illustrations, on that they could not be fully prepared totake care of the child once born. They would also feel sad to havethe child given off in adoption once born to another person who isnot its actual parent. Such people would also argue alongside theissue of when life starts and indicate that before the child is fullydeveloped into a functional fetus, it is not life and there isnothing wrong with going ahead and doing abortion. The argument ofSocrates would, however, go on to contradict itself in that a givenperson would fail to apply the element of truth, whereby they knowthat what they are doing is something that is inconsistent with thenorms of the society.
TheWeston theory is edged on the aspect that the world may be much morethan what we are normally used to. He questions the views that humanbeings have on different matters and ways through which they come tolabel some practices as either ‘morally right’ or ‘morallywrong’ (Cahn, & Markie, 2011). He indicates that the world isfull of possibilities and some of them have not come to light yet.With such reasoning, one could give room to the argument thatabortion is an issue that has been labeled as ’wrong’ basing onthe view that the world is the way people see it, and there isnothing more to it. The fact that such cases still do take place goesa long way to prove the argument of Weston in that there are usuallymany complexities in life and there is great chance that people wouldengage in activities that would be seen as obvious wrong by others(Sumner, 2014). The interpretation of the theories of Weston is basedon the perception of a given individual as there is usually a highchance that people will have different views.
EmmanuelKant, on the other hand, argued that all that people may know isalways based on the fields of mathematics, empirical and the naturalworld. According to his statement, it is quite impossible for peopleto stretch their knowledge to issues that touch on the supersensibleand things that are merely speculative. In such sense, the concept ofabortion would be viewed as an activity that can be explained usingscience ((Kahane et al., 2015). Some people could tread along thelines that in some few weeks, the embryo is still undeveloped andcannot survive or even be nurtured to be fully grown once outside.They may, therefore, maintain that it is fully justifiable to do so.The issues of morals are, therefore, seen as varying from oneindividual to another as they are not static. They are also bound tobe viewed in different ways by people and, therefore, are merelyspeculative, an issue that Kant is way against.
Theutilitarianism principle is quite important as it allows people tocarry out actions that are of general good and make them happy.There, therefore, arises the question of whether carrying out anabortion has the effect of making a given individual happy. Theaspect is edged on the fact that some people have had to live withthe guilt that comes after that as they begin to second-guess thedecisions that they took (Vaughn, 2015). They could also end upfeeling that they made the decision for a life that was about tostart without getting its views regarding an issue that was quiteparamount. As much as the philosophy provides people chance to makedecisions as they would wish, it normally ties them to the virtue ofensuring that they end up doing little to no harm to all other peoplethat are affected by the decisions that they make either directly orindirectly (Sumner, 2014). The problem, therefore, presents itselfwhere there happens to be a case whereby there will be harm done toanother life. Another side of the argument is that the decision tokeep a pregnancy or not, always lies with the mother or the couple ifthere is a committed relationship. In situations where they make thedecision to commit an abortion, such choice needs to be respected andis not wrong.
Theconcept of relativism is also of quite an importance whilehighlighting the issue of abortion. The argument in ethics lies inthe aspect that the moral view of a given person is mostly motivatedby the culture in which such a person was brought up. For instance, aperson who is brought up in a culture that does profess strongChristian or Muslim values will be less likely to engage in abortionas such practices are against the values of the religions that theyprofess (Kahane et al., 2015). It is also quite true that people whoare believers in making decisions basing on the perceptions of anindividual will welcome the idea of committing an abortion as theyonly look at the issue basing on how it will affect the specificperson. These people believe that autonomy is quite important in lifeand, therefore, people need to be more concerned with makingindependent decisions as those opposed to the views that are sharedby others.
Theconcept of egoism is also quite important while highlighting theissue of abortion as there is a chance that they could affect howpeople would treat the case of abortion. It normally bases on theaspect that people will look at a given case with the element ofself-interest. The self-interest suggested in the philosophy is quitedebatable, especially since there is no indication of how deciding tokeep or not to keep a pregnancy would be in line or against thepreservation of an individual (Cahn, & Markie, 2011). As aresult, many questions do arise on the issue? Some people would askserious questions regarding the practice of abortion which wouldinclude, how wrong they are, deciding that the practice is wrongbecause it has the potential to harm both the life of the mother orson. Other people could also pose the argument that how wrong it canbe when the mother feels that it is in her interest to terminate thepregnancy and get to focus on something that would do her good. Suchkind of questions exists in the contemporary world.
Inconclusion, it is quite important to note that the differentphilosophical standpoints outlines about ethical perspectives ofabortion help to bring in lots of questions regarding the topic. Inthe end, it is quite difficult to ascertain whether the said issue ismorally wrong or right, given the differing arguments that are posedregarding the issue. It, therefore, narrows down to the perception ofan individual and the personal reservations that he has regardingabortion. In spite of the various views that are held by individualsregarding cases of abortion, it is quite clear that the debate willstill go on the issue as people will maintain the variousperspectives that they have regarding it. Others will still regard itto be morally wrong while some people will maintain that there isnothing wrong with taking part in the practice.
Cahn,S. M., & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, theory, andcontemporary issues.
Kahane,G., Everett, J. A., Earp, B. D., Farias, M., & Savulescu, J.(2015). ‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas donot reflect impartial concern for the greater good. Cognition, 134,193-209.
Perry,J., Bratman, M., & Fischer, J. M. (2015). Introduction tophilosophy: Classical and contemporary readings.
Sumner,L. W. (2014). Abortionand moral theory.Princeton University Press.
Vaughn,L. (2015). Doingethics: Moral reasoning and contemporary issues.WW Norton & Company.