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Aging and intelligence


The level of intelligence of different individuals differs.Intelligence refers to the ability of a person to acquire and utilizeknowledge. There are two types of intelligence. They include fluidand crystallized intelligence. The former is a non-verbal,culture-free and independent of life experiences (Martinez, 2014). Itis the inherent ability of a person to learn, process information,and solve problems. Fluid intelligence is employed when a person isinvolved in cognitive activities that need adaptation to newsituations. It results in the acquisition of crystallizedintelligence. Crystallized intelligence is highly culture-dependent.It results from the accumulation of knowledge and skills during thelife of a person. Aging is considered to affect the two types ofintelligence (Clouston et al., 2013). This paper explains howaging influences intelligence.

Apresentation shows that fluid intelligence declines with age whilecrystallized intelligence improves as a person gets old. Variousstudies have shown that as people advance in age, they become poor inmemory, spatial relations, abstract and inductive reasoning, freerecall and mental calculations (Whitbourne et al., 2011).Children are also poor in fluid intelligence, but they improve withtime. 19-20 years of age is considered the peak of fluidintelligence. Crystallized intelligence improves with the experiencesof the application of knowledge and skills. The vocabulary, wordassociation, social judgment, the number of skills, and knowledge ofindividuals improves as their ages advance. For this reason, olderpeople are considered wise.

Inconclusion, it is not appropriate to say that youths are smarter thanolder people or vice versa. Young individuals have a high level offluid intelligence but are poor in crystallized intelligence.Crystallized intelligence replaces the former which declines as aperson ages. Youths can learn and think faster while olderindividuals have improved judgment ability.


Clouston, S. A., Brewster, P., Kuh, D., Richards, M., Cooper, R.,Hardy, R. &amp Hofer, S. M. (2013). The dynamic relationship betweenphysical function and cognition in longitudinal agingcohorts.&nbspEpidemiologic reviews,&nbsp35(1), 33-50.

Lecture 9: Aging and Intelligence, Retrieved fromhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amprct=j&ampq=&ampesrc=s&ampsource=web&ampcd=1&ampcad=rja&ampuact=8&ampved=0ahUKEwj0-IXr47DQAhVBu48KHTTODJYQFgghMAA&ampurl=https%3A%2F%2Flegacy.wlu.ca%2Fdocuments%2F40053%2FPS277-Lecture-9-Aging_and_Intelligence.ppt&ampusg=AFQjCNG2MGtgtRbveZZFwOfnJsjiCZ39oQ&ampsig2=h07esOjmjdOCwW_6iLaahg Accessed 18 November 2016

Martinez M. E. (2014), Education As the Cultivation ofIntelligence, Routledge

Whitbourne, S. K., Whitbourne, S. B., &amp Whitbourne, S. K.(2011).&nbspAdult development and aging: Biopsychosocialperspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.