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Annotated Bibliography Alcohol and Driving

AnnotatedBibliography: Alcohol and Driving

Driver’sIntension to Use Low Alcohol Drinks

Fromthe annotated bibliography, it is clear that more male than femaleare prone to driving while drunk. The studies have dealt withconsumer demand for low alcohol wine in marketing (Saliba,&nbspOvingtonand Moran 2013), alcohol related injury Cherpitel,&nbspGreenfield,&nbspBond,&nbspKerr and Midanik,&nbsp2010) and highexposure to risk as a result of the dangers associated with theconditions of the trip and high tendency to take (Houwing,&nbspandTwisk,&nbsp2015). From these readings, it is clear that othermeasures to curb the accidents relating to alcohol abuse have beeninstituted successfully. However, other measures outside thegovernment policy can be explored. Against this background, a studyon the intention to use low alcohol drinks before driving wasconceived.

Hypothesis

Thereis a difference in young males and older males on the intension todrink low alcohol drink before driving. Null Hypothesis: There is nodifference in young males and older males on the intention to drinklow alcohol drinks before driving.

Annotation

Saliba,&nbspA.,Ovington, &amp Moran,&nbspC. (2013). Consumer demand forlow-alcohol wine in an Australian sample.&nbspInternationalJournal of Wine Research,1. doi:10.2147/ijwr.s41448

Thisarticle was about consumer demand for low-alcohol wine to informmarketers about the purchase behave of alcohol consumers. The surveythat was conducted in Australia had 851 adult wine consumers completean online questionnaire on their purchase expectations andconsumption of alcohol. The results showed that women tend to have aliking to low alcohol wine and drinks with food. Frequent purchaserof wine preferred quantified wine or standarddrink. The participants cited the reasons for the use of low alcoholcontent wine was that they can drive after drinking alcohol to lessenthe effects of alcohol. They also preferred low-alcohol wine in orderto drink more less effect of alcohol. On the other hand, people whodrink for pleasure prefer high alcohol wines. This article isrelevant for the study on alcohol and driving because it seeks togive solutions to the problem of heavy drinking and driving. It alsooutlines some of the ways of reaching out to alcohol consumers andcreation of awareness on positive and negative impacts of alcoholism.

Jewett,&nbspA.,Shults,&nbspR.&nbspA., Banerjee,&nbspT., &amp Bergen,&nbspG.(2015). Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults — United States,2012.&nbspMMWR.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,&nbsp64(30),814-817. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6430a2

Thisstudy provides vital statistics on alcohol-impaired motor crashfatalities in the USA. The statistics show that alcohol-impairedfatal accidents continue to rise each year with some driversconsuming way beyond the legal levels. This article is important whenit comes to justification of

theresearch on alcohol and driving by proving patterns of alcoholconsumption and the link with fatal road crash. Data from BehavioralRisk Surveillance System (BRFSS) supplied the author and Center fordisease control and prevention provided the important estimates thatrelates to the rates of alcohol impaired driving, prevalence andepisodes. Center for Disease control and Prevention (CDC) is validand reliable since it is subjected to vigorous test of validity. Forthis reason, it will be invaluable for the study on alcohol anddrinking. BRFSS is also a reputable organization that collects dataon health-related behaviors from a sample of civilians. The studyfound that 1.8% of the participants in the study reported at lease anepisode of the alcohol-related motor accidents in the duration of 30days. It also found that four million adults reported at least 112,116, 000 episodes of alcohol related driving in the USA in 2012 aloneand was applauded as the lowest percent to be recorded since 1993.Men accounted for the 81% of the drinking drivers. From the study itis clear that the programs in place to curb driving while drank havesucceeded in reducing the alcohol-related accidents. This isinformation is important when it comes to justification of futurestudies on the some topics.

Dubois,&nbspS.,Mullen,&nbspN., Weaver,&nbspB., &amp Bédard,&nbspM. (2015). Thecombined effects of alcohol and cannabis on driving: Impact on crashrisk.&nbspForensicScience International,&nbsp248,94-100. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.12.018

Thisarticle used case control design to combine the effects of drivingunder the influence of alcohol and cannabis to ascertain whether itwill result in increase in number of fatalities. The studyparticipants included drivers with documented unsafe driving action(UDA) relating to crash. The study found that the prevalence ofaccidents relating to the combination of alcohol and cannabis hadincreased five-fold to reach 10% in 2008. This study is unique in the sense that it brings in anothercontrolling factor in fatal accidents, cannabis. It is important inestablishing the gap in research since many studies have already beencompleted on the impact of alcohol alone. It also informs enforcementagencies on the on the combined effects of cannabis and below minimumalcohol threshold for driving.

Cherpitel,&nbspC.&nbspJ.,Ye,&nbspY., Greenfield,&nbspT.&nbspK., Bond,&nbspJ., Kerr,&nbspW.&nbspC.,&amp Midanik,&nbspL.&nbspT. (2010). Alcohol-Related Injury andDriving while Intoxicated: A Risk Function Analysis of TwoAlcohol-Related Events in the 2000 and 2005 National AlcoholSurveys.&nbspTheAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,&nbsp36(3),168-174. doi:10.3109/00952991003793851

Thisstudy is based National Alcohol Surveys drawing data from thenational population data and uses the function analysis to examinealcohol related accidents that come from driving. The study usessamples from the 2000 and 2005 cases. From the study, the riskincreased with increase in the volume of alcohol uptake. The studyalso found that less frequent drinkers are at higher risk of accidentwhenever they consumer higher volumes of alcohol. From this study,it is clear that the level of risk goes hand in hand with thedrinking patterns per occasion. As much as the amount of drink hasalways been the prime suspect of the cause of road accidents, otherimportant factors like the frequency of drinking and occasions areintroduced. Most researchers have documented the impact of high bloodalcohol levels. This one is a contradiction.

Houwing,&nbspS.,&amp Twisk,&nbspD. (2015). Nothing good ever happens aftermidnight: Observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nightsamong young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensingcountry.&nbspAccidentAnalysis &amp Prevention,&nbsp75,61-68. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.11.01

Theauthors focus on the young male drivers in Netherlands who areoverrepresented in fatal accidents. The authors bring to ourattention two very crucial issues in drinking and driving, name highexposure to risk as a result of the dangers associated with theconditions of the trip and high tendency to take risk to account forthe overrepresentation of the youths in road carnage. The authorsappreciate the measures that are in place to check on adolescents’susceptibility given the early licensing’. With the measures suchas random alcohol testing schemes, legal alcohol limit and driverlicensing scheme in place, the authors sought to investigate dangerstrip conditions and risk taking among young drivers using data fromdata base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers.

Methodology

Studydesign

Thestudy on driver’s intension to use low-alcohol wine will use thecross-sectional approach whereby opinion will be sought from driversin public places, business units, households and offices. The studywill target the general population and the research assistants willbe advised against guiding the respondents but to advice, in case therespondent prompted to be directed, that they fill to the best oftheir knowledge and abilities. The respondents will conceal theiridentities and deliver the completed questionnaire to a designatedcollection place or contact the research assistant to ensureanonymity and confidentiality of the respondents.

Thequestions for the survey will be standardized by use of literaturereview as a validity control check. They will be draw from a diverserange of literature from this area. The literature review informingthis study will be from the intention to use alcohol and theintention to drive under the influence of alcohol. The first part ofthe questionnaire will collect demographic material about theparticipants particularly on age, gender, occupation, socialpreferences, marital status, whether the participant drives or notand income level. Questions will be designed on a scale of 1 (Idisagree) to 5 (I strongly agree).

Forthis study, the independent variable will be the adult and youngmales while the dependent variable will be the intension to use lowalcohol wine before driving. This will be seen in the question, canyou drink low alcohol wine as a measure before driving. Thesevariables will be analyzed using the IBM SPSS (Statistical Packagefor Social science).

Sample

Thestudy will use convenience sampling theory to get the rightrepresentation for the study about the intension to use low alcoholwine before driving. The sample will be obtained within the localityof the researcher but in different locations to get the right sampleof 200 participants. The males who appear to be over the age of 18years will be served with the questionnaires.

References

Cherpitel,&nbspC.&nbspJ.,Ye,&nbspY., Greenfield,&nbspT.&nbspK., Bond,&nbspJ., Kerr,&nbspW.&nbspC.,&amp Midanik,&nbspL.&nbspT. (2010). Alcohol-Related Injury andDriving while Intoxicated: A Risk Function Analysis of TwoAlcohol-Related Events in the 2000 and 2005 National AlcoholSurveys.&nbspTheAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,&nbsp36(3),168-174. doi:10.3109/00952991003793851

Dubois,&nbspS.,Mullen,&nbspN., Weaver,&nbspB., &amp Bédard,&nbspM. (2015). Thecombined effects of alcohol and cannabis on driving: Impact on crashrisk.&nbspForensicScience International,&nbsp248,94-100. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.12.018

Houwing,&nbspS.,&amp Twisk,&nbspD. (2015). Nothing good ever happens aftermidnight: Observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nightsamong young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensingcountry.&nbspAccidentAnalysis &amp Prevention,&nbsp75,61-68. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.11.014

Jewett,&nbspA.,Shults,&nbspR.&nbspA., Banerjee,&nbspT., &amp Bergen,&nbspG.(2015). Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults — United States,2012.&nbspMMWR.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,&nbsp64(30),814-817. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6430a2

Saliba,&nbspA.,Ovington, &amp Moran,&nbspC. (2013). Consumer demand forlow-alcohol wine in an Australian sample.&nbspInternationalJournal of Wine Research,1. doi:10.2147/ijwr.s41448