• Uncategorized

Communication Research Paper

CommunicationResearch Paper


Informationwithin any organization flows in every direction thus bringing aboutthe element of communication. Nevertheless, convenience in describingan act of communication entails answering questions such as who,what, which channel, to whom and with what effect. The description ofthese elements focuses on the process of communication as well as thefunctions it plays in society. Some of the functions associated withthe communication to society entail surveillance of the environment,cultural transmission between generations and correlation ofcomponents. According to research, the flow of the message in amulticultural society occurs through various audiences as well aschannels (Othman, 2012). They facilitate in the control analysis ofthe communication component that emphasizes the research area.Additionally, they describe the analysis of the content, media,audience and the effect thus bringing about the formulation ofvarious theories. Most importantly, scientists explained a typicalformula of what are referred to as transmission models ofcommunication. The method indicated that studying communicationrequires the understanding of the kinds of research to be conductedin answering questions such as control analysis, effects research,just to mention but a few (Othman, 2012).

Communication,as propagated by psychologists, involves someone or something thatsends a message. However, he brings in the question of theappropriateness of the term communicator which refers to a source ortransmitter of the message. The control analysis of communication inLasswell’s formula to the media associates the question who(Othman, 2012). Additionally, the content research focuses on an areaof study concerned with the messages present in the media. Thematerial analysis applies to matters regarding representation. Forinstance, how are black people represented on televisions? Therefore,content research focuses on counting the number of occurrences of aparticular image. These factors will significantly contribute inaddressing communication research based on theories such as channel,perception, privilege/stand point and territoriality. The currentstudy aims at discussing the concepts mentioned above regarding theirsignificance to communication in a cultural setting (Othman, 2012).

Concept1: Channel


Thechannel concept in communication refers to the medium through whichthe message gets sent across. For instance, in a conversation betweentwo people, their messages are carried across through the airwaves.Additionally, information from the media travels through air andradio waves to people across a wide range. Information may also becommunicated through other channels that correspond to the fivesenses in people. Therefore, the concept of channel plays a similarrole to that of a medium in communication (Fahmy et al. 2014).However, the term medium refers to a combination of differentchannels where for instance, televisions use both auditory and visualtransmissions. Most importantly, the question of which channel to usein carrying the message serves as a vital factor to communication. Abreakdown in the communication channels may bring about aninefficiency in the flow of information. For instance, in a casewhere employees are unaware of the organizational expectations, theycould develop suspicions regarding the motives and changes in thecompany (Fahmy et al. 2014). The outcome of such a scenario wouldinclude adverse effects on the productivity of the company whichwould bring about a decline in the organization’s reputation.Therefore, for the organization to operate efficiently, good managersshould effectively communicate to the employees about what isexpected of them and ensure that they are acutely aware of thecompany policies. These should be followed closely by informing theemployees of any upcoming changes with the aim of optimizing employeeproductivity (Fahmy et al. 2014).

Besides,communication channels occur in various types ranging from mobiletechnology, electronic bulletin boards, video conferencing, faxmachines, just to mention a few. The growth and development of asociety may not only rely on face to face communication to relaymessages across. Some challenges occur in the determination of whattype of communication channel to use to carry out efficient relayingof information (Fahmy et al. 2014). The types of communicationchannels may be categorized into three main groups namely: formal,informal and unofficial. The official communication channel focusesof transmitting organizational information which entails goals,policies, and procedures. The messages sent to follow a chain ofcommand from leaders within an organization to the employees (Fahmyet al. 2014). On the other hand, informal communication channelsdisregard the chain management structure by incorporating qualitycircles and teamwork. It involves people coming together to achieve aparticular goal without following instructions from leaders.Unofficial communication channels rely on social interactions thatoccur within an organization, culture or any other setting wherepeople share information regarding general issues in their lives(Fahmy et al. 2014).


Recently,I encountered a huge challenge when trying to communicate through thewrong channel. The local leaders in my town had organized a forum toreach out to young people within the community with of mentoring andencouraging them to pursue the different opportunities provided inboosting their lives. The conference required the display of thevarious opportunities through a visual and auditory presentation ofthe ways they could engage in developing the economy of thecommunity. My responsibility during the forum entailed operating themachinery for displaying and transmitting the information to thepeople. However, when the turn to showcase the presentation came, themonitors became defective and could not show the video. The audiencehad to listen to the presentation with no idea of what it entailed orthe factors addressed. They appeared bored, and some left the roomdisappointed. The leaders instructed that I had to ensure that theyouth watched the presentation and obtained their insight regardingthe opportunities provided.


Thechallenge in the situation entailed using the wrong communicationchannel in passing across vital information. The performance ought tohave utilized the visual and auditory mediums in transmittingpersonal information (Fahmy et al. 2014). However, the opticalcommunication channel became defective thus hindering the efficienttransmission of the information in the desired manner. According tothe definition, the channel concept of communication refers to theway through which information flows from the sender to the receiver.In this case, the flow of information required visual and audiomediums to relay the necessary information from the local leaders tothe young people in the community. However, one of the channelsfailed thus hindering the downward flow of the appropriateinformation from the leaders of the citizens (Fahmy et al. 2014).

Concept2: Perception


Theidea of perception largely contributes to communication throughacting as a filter between the transfers of information from oneperson to another. Most importantly, opinions bring about differentinterpretation of the message among people in that they tend to viewand perceive things based on their personal judgment. Mostimportantly, the perception in communication entails the processinvolved in the selection, organization, and interpretation ofinformation. It also requires the selection of stimuli that passesthrough an individual’s perceptual filters, organization into theirexisting structures and patterns as well as interpretation based onprevious experiences (Othman, 2012). Perception describes the way inwhich people assess information based on their surroundings. Forinstance, it may involve becoming aware of an individual’senvironment in a unique way that is influenced by communication. Mostimportantly, perceptions of every person vary due to disparities inthe way people interpret information. These variations occur due tofactors such as culture, present feelings, past experiences as wellas roles and physiology. The concept of perception in communicationallows people to explain the differences in what they see, hear andfeel (Othman, 2012).

Thesteps that drive people to make opinions include stimulation wherethey select sensory cues. These are followed closely by theorganization where people place the visual cues they notice afamiliar pattern to recognize the senses (Othman, 2012). Therecognition of these patterns refers to schemata which focus onorganizing perceptions. Additionally, interpretation allows people toname the identified perceptual models to understand the meaning ofwhat they sense within a culture.


Inevery situation, people gather information on others through formingindividual pictures based on the signals they receive. People alsoencode and store such information and later use it every time theyinteract with each other or make decisions in their lives. Besides,people continually strive to make sense of their social surroundings,be it when watching a political conversation on TV, having a romanticdinner or even dealing with their day to day tasks. I remember myfirst day in campus feeling nervous about the new experience. On theone hand, I felt excited about joining an institution where I wouldlearn more, interact and most of all live a free life. On thecontrary, I felt nervous about the exposure to a new world where mydecisions would determine the life I would live after school.Additionally, the nervousness occurred due to meeting new people fromdifferent parts of the world, living among strangers with the aim ofpursuing a proper course in life. Upon arrival at the administrationoffice, I was given some documents to fill in and later directed tomy room.

Theinstitution had many buildings and all the people around seemed toknow where to go. I felt ashamed to ask for directions to the roomsto avoid appearing clueless. Besides, the people I saw lookedfocused, determined and familiar with each other. I did not want themto think of me as a nuisance. After walking around the school forabout ten minutes, I noticed a young man sitting alone in a parkwhile reading a book. He looked like a calm and polite persontherefore, I walked up to him to ask for directions. Surprisingly, helooked at me for a minute and pointed towards a tall building withoututtering a single word. I thanked him and walked away silently. WhenI got to my room, three other young men were unpacking theirbelongings. I greeted them and walked to the empty bed on one corner.The impression I got from the other gents entailed the fact that theywere also freshmen from different regions. They did not talk to eachother much, and most of their belongings looked new, similar to mine.Later on in the day, I was walking alone to the cafeteria when Icoincidentally came across the same young man I asked for directions.He seemed composed and elder, and I decided to thank him again forhis kindness, but he ignored me. I later realized that he was thestudent leader and did not interact more with first-year students.


Theexample above illustrates an elaborate depiction of perception incommunication in that most of the reactions from the persona resultedin his behavior. The resulting knowledge about the new experiencehelped the persona navigate his way around the campus (Othman, 2012).Similarly, the new people he met brought about a perceptual processwhere his attention was drawn to the individual’s physicalappearance, mannerism as well as actions to what he said. Thesefactors drove the persona to arrive at conclusions based on hisperceptions of the social interaction.

Concept3: Privilege/Standpoint Theory


Thestandpoint theory states that people occupy different places in thesocial hierarchy where they view situations from a particular vantagepoint. Most importantly, every vantage point brings about aparticular understanding of the social structure. However, the peopleoccupying the lower levels of the hierarchy tend to understand thesocial fabric sufficiently as compared to those at the top. Thetheory is at times referred to as a feminist standpoint concept dueto its application to the way men’s and women’s privilegesdiffer. It plays an essential role to individuals through shapingtheir perspective based on the social and political experiences.Additionally, it claims that knowledge and marginalized groups aresocially situated in ways that facilitate in gaining awareness ofthings and ask questions. Besides, the standpoint theory attempts toexplain differences in perspectives through assuming that people’sexperiences, as well as opinions, are shared by the social groups towhich they belong.

Nevertheless,the standpoint theory operates in agreement with various assumptionssuch as people’s social communities that evaluate the types ofinformation they receive and which issues they find relevant.However, since people belong to multiple social groups, it becomespossible for them to possess several points of view at once. Itallows them to create a unique view of the world. Besides, theformulation of a standpoint requires consciousness, recognition, andevaluation of people’s experiences and social positions. On theother hand, differences in perspectives occur due to inequalities inthe social structure. For instance, a homeless man perceives theworld in a different manner from a wealthy man. Therefore, thestandpoint theory describes an individual’s perspective or anattitude towards the particular issues from their point of view.Privilege, on the other hand, describes an advantageous situationwhere an individual gets the upper hand as opposed to others.


Duringa disease outbreak in our community, the medical practitioners incollaboration with the public administrators instructed that allpeople be vaccinated and taught ways of preventing adverse effects.The call came on a Tuesday, and all people were required to visit thelocal hospital on Friday for the vaccination. On Friday, the queue tothe hospital was very long that some people gave up and went home. Onthe other hand, my family was exempted from visiting the hospitalbecause my father is the head doctor and my mother is a nurse. Wereceived the vaccination at home and even preserved some just in caseof any unforeseen activities. Nevertheless, the people who waited atthe hospital frantically scrambled for the vaccine to make sure thattheir family members were treated. The unlucky ones had to wait fortheir turn in the queue, and at some point, the vaccine supply ranout. All the people in the line were asked to visit the hospital thefollowing day after they had brought in more supplies. Unfortunately,some families who lived in the most affected areas became infectedand had to be airlifted to major hospitals.

Whenreceiving treatment, those patients stated that our local hospitalgave priority to some people thus leading to the shortage in supply.One of my neighbors told me that some of the patients were childrenwhose parents could get to the hospital on time. They arrived at thehospital late and found the supplies were finished. After thinkingabout it, I did not see the problem in my parents putting aside extravaccination kits in anticipation for future attacks.


Theexample about indicates an instance of marginalized positions wherethe less fortunate tend to express a more objective view of realityas opposed to the privileged groups. The occurrence of suchsituations entails the fact that people outside positions of powerare required to adopt the attitudes and behaviors common to the freegroups for their assimilation into the dominant culture.Additionally, the struggle of the marginalized people for validationbrings about moving experiences which result in a broad range ofperspective about various social groups and their interactions.Besides, since privileged groups lack the need to observe therealities of the less fortunate groups, their standpoints are usuallybiased by comparison.

Concept4: Territoriality Theory


Territorialitydescribes the way people utilize space in communicating occupancy orownership of possession and areas. Additionally, territorialityinvolves defense, the exclusiveness of use, identity andpersonalization. Most importantly, it refers to behavior by which anindividual or animal characteristically claims to own some space anddefends it against members of its species (Amy et al, 2010). Forinstance, men enter into women’s space more than females go intopeople’s space. This indicates that people possess a stronger senseof ownership that drives them towards challenging other maleboundaries. Consequently, people tend to respond to the invasion ofsuch territories in different ways based on their comfort norms. Someof the responses occur instances where people move closer to supportand individual steps away thereby giving up their territory.Similarly, such reactions happen when people are required to fit intoclose proximities, and they bow as a passive way of showing thattheir intentions do not include invading into the territories ofothers (Amy et al, 2010). These may be coupled with instances whereindividuals may move too close, and people refuse to give up theirterritory. Some of these reactions indicate masculinity where peopletend to protect their territory. Therefore, the concept ofterritoriality describes the attempt by people to affect, influence,or control others, phenomena ad relationships through asserting anddelimiting domination over a geographical area.

Besides,territoriality applies to animals through the element of possessionand ownership reactions to an area of space as well as to particularobjects. However, these occur through two dimensions that includeterritorial types and markers. Nevertheless, territoriality mayclosely be linked to the status where the size and location of anindividual’s dominance signal their status within the social group(Amy et al, 2010).


Myuncle, a traffic control officer, was driving on the highway theother day and came across a large truck occupying almost two lanes.He tried to hoot at the driver to use one lane to allow othervehicles to access the road efficiently. The truck driver ignored myuncle and sped off in the same lanes he used. My uncle continued withthe journey but found the vehicle parked at a petrol station alongthe highway. He decided to face the truck driver and ask him tofollow traffic rules. However, the driver told my uncle that his hugetruck deserves to use the two lanes due to the size and other smallvehicles should occupy the others.


Thetruck driver demonstrates territoriality through the size of histruck that fills two lanes of the highway. The size of the carcommunicates the value of owning a lot of space on the road drivingsmall cars to occupy limited space. These elements portray theconcept of territoriality through communicating occupancy andownership of possessions and areas. It also depicts non-verbal cuesof communication where protection of a particular sector may occurthrough incidents such as ownership of two lanes of the highway (Amyet al, 2010).


Theeffectiveness of communication relies on the availability resourcesthat will allow the transfer of the message from one person toanother. Therefore, transmitting the information requires variousconcepts that describe how a message may be sent from one individualto the other. These ideas include the channel theory that elaborateson how information from one person gets transferred to the recipient(Amy et al, 2010). Some of the channels utilized in transferringinformation include technological devices that enhance the speed,clarity, and effectiveness of the message. Nevertheless, for theinformation to appeal to the recipient in a similar way as the sendertransferred it, there needs to be another concept. This conceptentails the perception theory that clarifies on how people receivethe information. It involves selection, organization, andinterpretation of the information transferred to understand themessage. These may be followed closely by the privilege or standpointtheory that determines the recipient’s perspective regarding theinformation they receive. Most importantly, the territoriality theoryportrays the way people employ nonverbal cues to communicatedominance over their possessions and spaces (Amy et al, 2010). Theexamples given under each concept depict how different people analyzeinformation and possibly react to situations in the social setting ofsociety. They also indicate that people possess differentperspectives in interpreting and responding to information.


Amy,&nbspM.,Sprau,&nbspP., De Goede,&nbspP., &amp Naguib,&nbspM. (2010).Effects of personality on territory defense in communicationnetworks: a playback experiment with radio-tagged greattits.&nbspProceedingsof the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,&nbsp277(1700),3685-3692. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0598

Fahmy,&nbspS.,Bock,&nbspM.&nbspA., &amp Wanta,&nbspW. (2014). In Which Channel:Research on Media Used in Visual Communication.&nbspVisualCommunication Theory and Research,93-106. Doi: 10.1057/9781137362155_6

OthmanIbrahim. (2012). Perception of information technology use inorganization: Models and theories used in current landscape.&nbspAfricanJournal of Business Management,&nbsp6(4).doi:10.5897/ajbm11.945