- June 30, 2020
Community-Based Prevention Program on Vector Related Diseases
Community-BasedPrevention Program on Vector Related Diseases
Community-BasedPrevention Program on Vector Related Diseases
Avector in health care is any microorganism or animal that isresponsible for carrying and transmitting a pathogen which isinfectious to another living organism. Such vectors include ticks,fleas, mites, flies, and mosquitoes that carry pathogens. Many ofthese vectors feed on blood in the majority of their live stages. Thetransmission of pathogens to the host organism`s bloodstream occursduring the vector blood feeding from the host. Each vector isresponsible for causing a particular disease. For example, mosquitoas a vector is responsible for causing malaria while triatomine bugscause Chagas disease. Vector related diseases are a health concern inthe community but can, however, be intervened and prevented throughresearch programs (Vector-Borne Diseases., 2013).
HealthConcerns of the Community
Accordingto the public health department, the state of Georgia (USA), thecommunity faces several mosquito-borne viral diseases. Themosquito-borne viruses present in Georgia can cause diseases both inanimals and in humans. In Georgia, LaCrosse virus, Eastern Equineencephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are the mosquito-borneviruses which affect the community most commonly. In the past,another virus by the name Saint Louis encephalitis has also beendetected in Georgia. The increase of mosquitoes in a place means ahigher chance of infection to both humans and animals includingbirds. Therefore, this calls for the investigation of the factorswhich lead to the thriving of mosquitoes as vector insects. Measuressuch as draining or avoiding swampy areas which are ideal breedingground for mosquitoes are therefore necessary. Another measure is theuse of mosquito repellents and nets (Tyagi., 2013).
Thecommunity of the Georgia state is also faced with the health concernof exotic vector-borne diseases. Exotic vector-borne diseases are,however, rare in Georgia. They are occasionally reported in peoplewho travel internationally. The common exotic vector-borne diseasesreported in Georgia include Chikungunya, Dengue, JapaneseEncephalitis, Zika Virus, Chagas Disease, and Leishmaniosis amongothers ("Vector-Borne Diseases—An Interview with John D.Edman, PhD", 2013). Although the risk of exotic vector-bornediseases infection is very low, people should avoid contracting suchdiseases as some of them are very deadly such as the zika virus. Thestate of Georgia should also carefully screen those who travelinternationally to avoid bringing with them the exotic vector-bornediseases which can, therefore, be transmitted by specific vectors.
Zoonoticdiseases which can be transmitted from animals to human beingsthrough a vector such as a tick also present a health concern to theGeorgian community. These types of diseases are better known asvector-borne diseases. The cause of zoonotic diseases infection tohuman beings is the infected livestock. The zoonotic disease team,therefore, conducts a surveillance to monitor the infected livestockand wildlife to take preventive measures which block the spread ofsuch diseases to humans. There are many zoonotic diseases which canbe transferred from animals to humans including Tularemia,Leptospirosis, Avian Influenza, Psittacosis, and Rabies among others.The department of public health, Georgia, provides education to thepublic on how to prevent vector-borne diseases and also helpshealthcare providers with the necessary information concerning thediagnosis and treatment of zoonotic diseases (Ansorge., 2013).
CurrentEnvironmental Risk Assessment Methods Applicable to Public HealthIssues
Environmentalrisk assessment is the act of carrying out a prediction as to whethera certain chemical substance or a project has the capacity ofaffecting the environment or human beings adversely. Some measures ofcountering vector related diseases such as the development ofchemicals or biological technologies to reduce or completely wipe outthe vector population responsible for vector related diseases arestill under investigation for their potential risk on the environmentand human beings. A permanent solution can then be achieved to onceand for all address the challenge posed by vector related diseases inthe community.
Manystrategies to prevent and control vector-borne diseases have beenproposed. Malaria is one of the most deadly vectors related diseaseswhich claims many lives annually especially for the children acrossthe globe. The vector-borne disease, malaria can be caused by amongothers, poor irrigation and water systems, deforestation, and poorwaste disposal methods. Strategies for achieving disease control arehowever under test. To avoid excessive use of chemicals in vectorcontrol which can have side effects on living things, development ofprojects such as the use of biological controls such as larvivorousfish and bacterial larvicides has emerged. This technology target andkill the larvae of vectors thus reducing the vector population whichis responsible for vector related diseases (Ansorge, Henry, &Kamen, 2013).
Othermeasures may be ineffective or not cost effective. In such ascenario, the use of chemicals can be relied upon as a means ofvector control. Chemical methods used can include space spraying,indoor residual spraying, and the use of chemical adulticides andlarvicides. These methods aim at interrupting or shortening thelifespan of vectors thus reducing disease transmission. Environmentalrisk assessment is being conducted to ensure the development ofchemicals with minimal side effects on human beings, livestock, andthe environment (Finizio & Villa, 2012).
Somestrategies also which have no environmental impacts have beendeveloped and adopted. These strategies involve the personalprotection/preventive strategies which involve chemical tools for newsynergies. An example of this strategy includes theinsecticide-treated nets (ITNs). In Africa, the use ofinsecticide-treated bed nets in malaria-endemic regions has led to areduced child and infant mortality. The assessment of health impactsof infrastructure projects such as irrigation can also assist inidentifying potential impacts on vector related diseases.
Preventionand Intervention Program
Vectorrelated diseases are deadly diseases which call for a collectiveeffort in preventing the spread of such diseases. A community needsto understand the life cycles of various vectors and devise wayswhich interfere with such life cycles to reduce the vector populationthus preventing or reducing the spread of vector related diseases.For example, research shows that mosquitoes breed in swampy areas. Acommunity can collectively work to ensure dry surroundings bydraining swampy areas thus interfering with the breeding ofmosquitoes which result in reduced mosquito population. To reducemalaria infection by mosquitoes, community members can be encouragedto embrace the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) (Tyagi et al.,2013). The government should, on the other hand, ensure theavailability of such insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and at areasonable cost.
Vectorrelated diseases can also be prevented by an environmentally friendlymethod of introducing certain vector predators which wipe out thepopulation of a given vector thus controlling the spread ofvector-borne diseases. For example, larvivorous fish feed on themosquito larvae thus limiting their population growth which helps incontrolling the spread of malaria. Such kind of fish species can bemade available by the government while the community can besensitized on their use as a biological vector control (Ansorge.,2013).
Thedevelopment of chemical with less environmental impacts is alsonecessary to kill or reduce the lifespan of the vectors thuspreventing the spread of the vector-related diseases. Research hasshown that with improved technology, vector selective chemicals whichonly exert adverse effects on a particular vector can be developed.This technology would lead to the prevention of vector relateddiseases with fewer effects on the environment and human beings.
Drainingof swamps to interfere with the life cycle of mosquitoes which reducetheir population = $300,000
Developmentof proper waste disposal channels to reduce vector breeding =$150,000
Provisionof insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at a subsidized cost or for free =$500,000
Introductionof vector predators = $100,000
Developmentof environmentally friendly chemicals = $1000, 000
Total= $2050, 000
ProposedProgram SWOT Analysis
Thecommunity possesses the necessary strength to implement all the aboveprogram ideas. The drainage of swampy areas, for example, can be doneby the able-bodied members of the community. Money for implementingthe other ideas can be raised through community contributions whichraise enough money for the program. The weakness of the community canarise from disloyalty of community members who may not be willing toparticipate in solving challenges facing the community. Some ideas ofthe program such as the development of environmentally friendlychemicals present an opportunity to the learned members of thecommunity thus helping them advance their professionalism. However,the proposed program poses a threat to the community and theenvironment as the testing of some technologies can turn out to behazardous (Ansorge., 2013).
Vector-BorneDiseases—An Interview with John D. Edman, Ph.D. (2013).Vector-BorneAnd Zoonotic Diseases,1(2),173-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/153036601316977787
Finizio,A. & Villa, S. (2012). Environmental risk assessment forpesticides. EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Review,22(3),235-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0195-9255(02)00002-1
Ansorge,S., Henry, O., & Kamen, A. (2013). Recent progress in lentiviralvector mass production. BiochemicalEngineering Journal,48(3),362-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.10.017
Tyagi,A., Sharma, T., Singh, M., Fatma, K., Rawat, V., Aggarwal, M., &Khandal, R. (2013). Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net.E-JournalOf Chemistry,7(s1),S15-S22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/272051