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Comparative Analysis of Community Policing Strategies in the United

COMMUNITY POLICING STRATEGIES 9

ComparativeAnalysis of Community Policing Strategies in the United States and inGreat Britain

ComparativeAnalysis of Community Policing Strategies in the United States and inGreat Britain

Communitypolicing, sometimes referred to as the community-led policing, is astrategy that is implemented by the government to address issues suchas crime and social disorder in the society. The primary focus ofcommunity policing is to enhance trust between the police andcommunity members, so that they can work in collaboration to solvecrimes issues in the society. Community policing is defined by threekey constituents namely: community partnership, organizationaltransformation, and problem solving. The neighborhood under which apolice officer has been assigned, and in which he or she is requiredto be responsible for any matter taking place, should be a smallgeographical area that is manageable. Therefore, the primaryobjective of the research paper is to compare the strategies ofcommunity policing in the United States (U.S.) with those in GreatBritain so as to facilitate easy comprehension of the concept incrime and social disorder control and management.

CommunityPolicing Strategies in United States

CommunityPartnership

Communitypartnership is one of the strategies that are used in the U.S., andit promotes collaboration between the society and the law enforcementagencies. These individuals and the police officers also worktogether with various organizations within the community to come upwith solutions to problems and enhance trust in police (Dunham&amp Alpert, 2015).The concept of community policing states that the police are not in aposition to solve the problems alone, hence, there is need to workclose with relevant stakeholders. In U.S, the partnerships have twomain objectives to address: formulating solutions to problems, andpromoting public trust. Similarly, communities are very significantin policing because they are required to play an active role inprioritizing and handling public safety issues(Dunham &amp Alpert, 2015).

Inthe U.S., community policing work with other government agencies suchas schools, ordinance enforcement, child support service, health andhuman service, law enforcement agencies, public work department,probation and parole, prosecutors and legislative institutions.Similarly, community members included in community policing includecommuters, visitors and tourist, residents, community leaders,activists, volunteers, formal and informal community leaders (Dunham&amp Alpert, 2015).Other important partners in the community policing are serviceproviders, since they have common interest with the people theyserves such as the service clubs and faith community among others. Community partnership in U.S. also includes the media, since they arevery essential when it comes to relying information. The media createawareness to the public, government, and community agencies. Anothercategory of collaborator included in the community policing is theprivate business, since the group tend to have solution to problemsthat are of mutual concern (Dunham&amp Alpert, 2015).

OrganizationalTransformation

Withinthe U.S., there are transformations that are made in the organizationso as to improve community policing, which include the alignment ofinstitutional management, personal, structure and information systemthat assist in proactive problem solving, and community partnership(Kochel, Burruss &amp Weisburd, 2016).The concept of community policing requires that all departments arepositioned in a manner that they can be managed easily so as tosupport community policing. For instance, it promotes theutilization of modern management practices that helps to enhanceefficiency and effectiveness. Moreover, in the U.S., communitypolicing puts more emphasis on organizational structures so that itdoes not bring more complications when implementing the idea. Mostorganizations are encouraged to embrace the idea ofinstitutionalization, since it will change how institutions aremanaged, their personnel, and the technology used (Dunham&amp Alpert, 2015).

Agencymanagement is an aspect of organizational transformation within thecommunity policing model. As a result, the ideas from the communitypolicing are merged with other agencies by making changes in thefollowing areas: leadership, climate and culture, formal laborrelations, accountability, policing and procedures, decision making,organizational evaluation and increased transparency (Kocheletal.,2016).Additionally, organizational structure is a component ofinstitutional transformation that focuses on geographic assignment ofoffices, despecialization, and resource and finances. Personnel arealso an element of organizational transformation with the followingkey objectives: recruitment, hiring, selection, evaluation andtraining of workforce. Finally, information system is an aspect oforganizational transformation, since it helps in accessing ofimportant information when implementing community policing.Information technology is comprised of the communication, quality andaccuracy of data (Kocheletal.,2016).

ProblemSolving

Problemsolving is a strategy that is used in community policing, and it iscommon in the U.S. since it helps in proactive and systematicevaluation of problem, and to develop an effective solution. One ofthe principles of community policing requires that every individualshould engage in a proactive problem solving since it is systematicand modern (Kocheletal.,2016). Community policing in the U.S. does not allow responding to crimeonly after it had occurred, and that is why people are encouraged topractice proactive techniques of coming up with solution to anypotential problem in the community. Problem solving must be mergedwith all police operations that guide decision making efforts foreffective working. Additionally, various agencies are encouraged tothink innovatively with references to their Reponses and opinionmaking as a strategy of potential solutions (Kocheletal.,2016).

Thestrategy of problem solving requires the relevant organization andindividual to perform scanning, since that helps in recognizing andprioritizing the issues. Scanning helps to achieve the followinggoals: determine nature of problem, estimate the magnitude of theproblem, identify basic problem and formulate baseline measures(Kocheletal.,2016).The next phase of problem solving is Reponses, which are reached soas to develop solutions that can address the merging problem.Thirdly, analysis is another concept of problem solving that comesimmediately after scanning it helps to evaluate what is knownconcerning the problem. Similarly, community policing in the U.S.encourages assessment, since that can help to establish theeffectiveness of the response (Kocheletal.,2016).

CommunityPolicing Strategies in Great Britain

IntensiveEnforcement

Inthe Great Britain, there are several strategies in community policingincluding intensive enforcement, which sometimes is referred to asthe zero tolerance. In some places, intensive enforcement is alsoknown as the broken windows. The primary objective of that communitypolicing strategy is to encourage police officers to respond to crimeand incivilities immediately they occur (Kocheletal.,2016).That strategy has been successful, and it has helped to reduce therate of crime significantly(Murray, Mueller-Johnson &amp Sherman, 2015).There are certain techniques that can be implemented to reduceincivilities such as less aggressive versions. However, such methodsare faced with numerous challenges including damaging of therelationship between the community and the police. On the other hand,when such types of strategy are applied in community policing, theycan undermine the trust and confidence. Therefore, in Great Britain,they found it important to implement intensive enforcement as astrategy to limit crime in the community(Murray etal.,2015).

HotspotsPolicing

Hotspotspolicing is equally another strategy that was implemented in GreatBritain as a way to strengthen community policing. The approach workseffectively in a small area, where resources are concentrated intoregions that have been marked and identified as high crime zones. Thestrategy has been effective since police are deployed in thoseregions, and they interact with the community to reduce the rate ofcrime (Murrayetal.,2015).Hotspots policing work effectively alongside other measures that helpto reduce the rate of crime in the society. Research shows thathotspots policing have an impact to certain types of crime in thecommunity such as burglary. Crimes that do not have geographicaldemarcation such as cyber-enabled crime, however, are very difficultto handle with hotspots policing. One of the challenges being facedwith hotspots policing is that the crime keep shifting to neighboringregions (Murrayetal.,2015).

PredictivePolicing

Predictivepolicing is another strategy that is used in community policing inthe Great Britain, and its objective is to anticipate for the futureoffending by collaborating with the community (Pennington&amp Lynch, 2015).Predictive policing is achieved through spatial-temporal crimeassessment, which helps in preventing repeated or near-repeat crimes.Additionally, the strategy is combined with other measures such astactical intervention and as a result, the effectiveness ofpredicative policing is improved. These strategies have greatlyhelped to eradicate crimes in the community, and they have improvedsocial interactions among the police and the individuals(Pennington &amp Lynch, 2015).

Problem-OrientedPolicing

TheGreat Britain also utilizes the method of problem-oriented policingin the control and management of crime. The approach was derived fromhotspots policing that forms part of the National Intelligence Model.The primary goal of problem-oriented policing is to identify driversof recurrent or connected problems that are dominant in the community(Braga, Welsh &amp Schnell, 2015). The group that plays a significant role in this type of communitypolicing strategy is the residents, whereby they embrace proactivetechniques of addressing the problem. The foundations oreffectiveness of problem-oriented policing is grounded on systematic,detailed problem analysis. Similarly, for problem-oriented policingto be more effective, it requires careful implementation for crime tobe reduced (Braga,Welsh &amp Schnell, 2015). Apart from that, problem-oriented policing demand for excellentanalytical skills and it requires collective collaboration of allparties involved in the community policing. Alternatively, there arecertain societies where problem-oriented policing cannot be effectivebefore analysis of social-economics dynamics are studies. Suchcommunities in most situations are crime-ridden, deprived andunstable. Analysis must be conducted within the hotspots regions andother micro-locations that are prone to crimes to facilitate crimemanagement (Braga,Welsh &amp Schnell, 2015).

Conclusion

Fromthe above considerations, it is evident that there are differentcommunity policing strategies that are implemented in U.S. and GreatBritain. In the U.S., some of the strategies incorporated incommunity policing include community partnership, problem solving andorganizational transformation. On the other hand, community policingstrategies utilized in Great Britain include intensive enforcement,hotspots policing, predictive policing, and problem-orientedpolicing. However, it is imperative to note that regardless of thedisparities noted in the types of strategies utilized, all arecollaborative in nature, uniting several groups like the police, thesociety, and business stakeholders among others.

References

Braga,A. A., Welsh, B. C., &amp Schnell, C. (2015). Can policing disorderreduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journalof Research in Crime and Delinquency,52(4),567-588.

Dunham,R. G., &amp Alpert, G. P. (2015). Criticalissues in policing: Contemporary readings.LongGrove, Illinois :WavelandPress.

Kochel,T. R., Burruss, G., &amp Weisburd, D. (2016). Assessing the Effectsof Hot Spots Policing Strategies on Police Legitimacy, Crime, andCollective Efficacy. NCJ,(249747).

Murray,A., Mueller-Johnson, K., &amp Sherman, L. W. (2015). Evidence-BasedPolicing of UK Muslim Communities Linking Confidence in the PoliceWith Area Vulnerability to Violent Extremism. Internationalcriminal justice review,1057567715574384.

Pennington,K., &amp Lynch, O. (2015). Counterterrorism, Community Policing andthe Flags Protests: An Examination of Police Perceptions of NorthernIreland`s Operation Dulcet. Studiesin Conflict &amp Terrorism,38(7),543-559.