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Crime and Criminal Behavior- Domestic Violence

Crimeand Criminal Behavior- Domestic Violence

Crimeand Criminal Behavior- Domestic Violence

Thesocial disorganization theory is based on the premise that crimerates are not equally dispersed (Kubrin,and Wo, 2016).It argues that crime is concentrated in specific places and even whenthere are changes in the residents living there, it remains stable.This means that where an individual lives determines the likelihoodof that individual to participate in crime as opposed to otherprofiles such as age and gender. Crime rates are linked to theecological profiles of a neighborhood such as poverty, racialheterogeneity, family disruptions and residential mobility. On theother side, differential theory accounts for the engagement incriminal activities (Dobrow,2016).It proposes that criminal behavior is learned and acquisition isthrough social contact. It also gives an account of ways in whichindividuals through their motives, drives and attitudes engage incriminal acts. The two theories look at the failures in the socialinstitutions including the family. According to the theory thefailing family institutions is specific to the neighborhoods andcommunities. In the urban settings, the families come from diversesocial and ethnic backgrounds. This diversity will make it difficultfor couples to understand each other accounting for the high numberof domestic violence in the neighborhoods. The aim of this researchpaper is to show how social disorganization and differentialassociation contribute to domestic violence and increasing number ofwomen in the criminal justice system. The paper will argue thatsocial disorganization and differential association not onlycontribute to domestic violence but also increases the number ofwomen in the criminal justice system

LiteratureReview

Thereare theories associated with domestic violence and crime at largewhich are presented by scholars in criminology.

SocialDisorganization Theory

Accordingto Rogers and Pridemore (2016), the theory directly connects therates of crime to neighborhoods features of the ecology, where thetheory leans on the assumption that place matters. The location whereone resides is a significant factor that shapes the likelihood thatone will commit a crime or illegality. It is further argued that theresidential area contributes more to the possibility of onecommitting crime than personal characteristics individual dons. Thetraits they consider are race, gender, and age. The theory furtherasserts that young people from the shortchanged backgrounds andneighborhoods form and participate in a subculture that seems toapprove criminal behavior, which later becomes the norm such that theyounger generation grows in that environment thus becoming part ofthe mess (Rogers and Pridemore, 2016). The environment tends to breeda new crop of a crime generation every season, just emanating fromthe residence location. The persistence in the social life causes theyoung people adapt to criminality kind of life as that is part ofthem and their social life.

Familieshave become a battlefield because couples come from different socialand ethnic backgrounds. The financial part of the theory comes intoplay where due to scrabbling for the scarce resources available forthe people they end up subdividing the land, creating new ecologicalenvironments which are similar in character and low-income cadre(Kubrin and Wo, 2016). According to them, the interactions continuewith the same people who become consistent and thus the kind ofpeople one is meeting with and who end up being the peers areconsistently the same. All the people one is moving around with arein the crime business consistently due to their economic status, thusinfluencing one to be part of that society. Kubrin and Wo (2016)argue that mutuality is also an issue in the disorganization theory.When a place becomes competitive, economic and social amenities risein prices forcing the less fortunate and the unemployed to leave toanother cheaper place. The location to where these people move seemsto be invaded by a new element which gives rise to competition forthe resources available, thereby causing reorganization which couldlead to a rivalry that gives rise to conflict between the new and theold. The conflict brings in crime among the ethnic groups, classes,races, and gender. Kubrin and Wo (2016) note that there are thoseelements who feel that criminality is not the way to go and decidesto mentor the young people on seeking education and better their lifeeconomically and socially. That is referred to as predictability inone`s social life. Those are the individuals who understand the painof having crashes and burglary being the culture of the society.

DifferentialAssociation Theory

Accordingto Dobrow (2016), the theory of differential association suggeststhat through interaction among the people of the same class, theylearn concepts, values, behavior, attitudes, techniques, and motivesto commit an illegality or a crime. It is noted that as said, &quotShowme your friend and I will tell you who you are&quot applies here inthe sense that one learns much from the peers and those that oneinteracts with frequently. He further argues that in scenarios wheresuccess is more accessible through breaking the law than it is whenabiding by the law, the human psychology will tend to commit theillegality so as to acquire the success (Dobrow, 2016). That works inthe situations where the balance of abiding by the law is outweighedby that of breaking the same to gain access to wealth and prosperity.The theory has been put into practice wherein the low-income areaswhere one would prefer to risk life and trade in hard drugs so as toearn a living in a fast manner than engage in a clean business whichstarts small and grows to great heights in the future. Thus one findsit easier to risk life to earn more money than work clean since thebalance of breaking the law is higher than that of abiding by thelaw.

Accordingto Adams (2016), women in the recent times have been instrumental inmaking domestic violence cases be fast-tracked, heard and decidedwhich have handed the perpetrators of the illegalities very harshsentences. Full participation for women in social justice systemconcerning gender justice is important as they feel part of thesociety that is seeking to eliminate the vice completely from thesociety. It has also been helpful in making women feel to be equal totheir male counterparts, such that mutual respect is found and thecontribution to the family welfare is equal, and thus justiceprevails. Through this, women are empowered, and their advancement isin the offing.

DomesticViolence

Domesticviolence is a serious criminal offence no matter who perpetrates, andagainst whoever it is perpetrated. It is exercised in various formsof battering, sexual harassment and marital rape, verbal abuse,economic deprivation, coercion, and physical assault. It is acoercive behavior that is demonstrated by one party in a relationshipagainst another with the aim of maintaining dominion over the onewith whom they have an intimate relationship.

Accordingto Erickson and Röbäck de Souza (2015), domestic violenceprevalence is high on men who perpetrate against women. However,there are instances where women have also been seen to be violentagainst men in the society, but present a small proportion of theperpetrators of domestic violence. It is further cited that thelifetime prevalence of women being abused physically by intimatepartners accounts for ten to fifty percent. Sexual assault intimatepartners were found to be experienced by 10 to 35% of women (Ericksonand Röbäck de Souza, 2015). Half of all homicides in the world areattributed to women being killed by their intimate partners.

Accordingto Williamson, Jones et al. (2015), it is estimated that thirty toseventy-five percent of adult women admit that they sufferpsychological abuse, ten to thirty percent report physical violence.It is however noted that domestic violence in the developing nationsis limited. As mentioned from the prevalence analysis, the principalvictims of domestic issues are the women, though it also happens tochildren and in limited cases in men from women.

Therelationship between social disorganization and the differentassociation is that once the society is disorganized and a culture ofcriminality is entrenched becoming part of life for the community.Different people interacting get to learn the culture from those whoare active in the criminality, thus, the society becomes unified,where the wrong has driven the good out.

Accordingto Erickson and Röbäck de Souza (2015), the remedies to domesticviolence are empowering women and make them feel equal to their malecounterparts, and restraining offenders to cause any further violenceto the complainant. Also, order the offender to vacate the familyhome, order the defendant to pay all maintenance fees to theplaintiff and defendants, and instruct the defendant to hand over theautomobile and other personal effects to the plaintiff. Remedies willfurther include controlling access to the plaintiff`s children by therespondent, and restraining the offender from contacting thecomplainant at work or other places frequented by the plaintiff.

Summary

Domesticviolence is connected to disorganization theory in the sense thatwhile one is committed to criminality, the time for the family wouldbe limited and once the violent person is questioned, the responsebecomes physical or psychological abuse. The culture of crime in aresidential place makes one always to be on the lookout as therecould someone hunting you and thus the mental torture.

Thelink between domestic violence and differential theory is shown whereone was a right person and then suddenly changes to a violent humanbeing. That tells that one has been interacting with the corruptindividuals who end up becoming like them as far as violence isconcerned. Psychology has shown that when one is trying to defend acharacter, it is done through violence.

Accordingto Dobrow (2016), violence has victims, perpetrators andvictim-perpetrators. The overlap occurs where the authors andvictim-perpetrators are isolated, living with a non-spouse partner,and show bad temperaments. They also report the use of hardsubstances. The victims are then left with the responsibility of lifewith children and earn lower in household income. Though both havesimilar traits, victims appear distinctly different.

Hypothesis

Thereis a positive correlation between social disorganization and domesticviolence

Thedifferent association leads to an increase in domestic violence

Bothsocial disorganization and differential association influence changein character

Conclusion

Fromthe study, it is seen that crimerates are linked to the ecological profiles of a neighborhood. Familydisruptions lead to domestic violence because of social anddemographic differences. Also, when people live in the sameneighborhoods, they acquire criminal behaviors such as domesticviolence. Studies confirm that the failing family institutions isspecific to the neighborhoods and communities since diversity willmake it difficult for couples to understand each other accounting forthe high number of domestic violence in the neighborhoods.

Sincethe study has shown that disorganization in the society leads tosocial ills such as corruption, this paper recommends re-assessmentof the moral values upheld by the community in general. From theearly stages of life, children should be taught to optimize thesocial gains as opposed to individual gains. For example, ifcorruption is widespread, it opens the gate for criminal activitiesand the only way to stop this is to inculcate the right moral valuesto children and the community at large. Additionally, meeting thewelfare of the communities is another important solution that willlead to positive interaction patterns within families and society atlarge. Change in the living conditions and environment in generalwill also lead to change in the personality.

References

Adams,M. (2016). Pedagogical Foundations for Social Justice Education.TeachingFor Diversity and Social Justice,27.134-148

Dobrow,J. A. (2016). Differential Association Theory. The Encyclopedia ofCrime &amp

Punishment.(Vol. 3, pp. 300-310). Chicago IL: Encyclopedia Criminology.

Eriksson,M., &amp Röbäck de Souza, K. (2015). Notions of risk, riskassessment and children`s

treatmentneeds, and the implementation of systematic risk assessment: Paperpresented

atthe Symposium &quotChallenges in implementing evidence-based supportto children

exposedto domestic violence&quot. In 1st European Conference on DomesticViolence,

Queen`sUniversity Belfast, Belfast, 6th-9th of September 2015.

Kubrin,C. E., &amp Wo, J. C. (2016). Social Disorganization Theory`sGreatest Challenge: Linking

StructuralCharacteristics to Crime in Socially Disorganized Communities,22, 202-209.

Rogers,E., &amp Pridemore, W. A. (2016). Research on social disorganisationtheory and crime in

ruralcommunities. TheRoutledge International Handbook of Rural Criminology,23. 45- 51

Williamson,E., Jones, S. K., Ferrari, G., Debbonaire, T., Feder, G., &ampHester, M. (2015). Health

Professionalsresponding to men for safety (HERMES): feasibility of a generalpractice

trainingintervention to improve the response to male patients who haveexperienced or

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