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Critical Infrastructure

CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 8

CriticalInfrastructure

Step5: Cost Estimation.

Afterthe potential countermeasures are determined, the cost of everycountermeasure is determined and compared with the effectiveness ofeach one for taking care of the critical assets. An estimate of thecost was suggested based on the counter measures which was used toexecute the whole list. First, the relative cost of the countermeasure is considered. Every countermeasure is rated as either low,medium or high. The relative cost is divided into three categories.Capital investment is the first and it involves initial set up costsand initial purchase of materials. The second is the annual operatingcost which involves the price of performing the countermeasure onannual basis. The last is the assessment of annual maintenance costwhich involves the costs for the maintenance and upkeep of thecountermeasure.

CountermeasureRelative Cost Range.

CapitalInvestment: Low= values &lt $50K, Medium=between 50K and 100K, andHigh= values &gt$100K.

AnnualOperating Cost: Low=values &lt$20K, Medium= values between $20K and$50K, and High= values &gt$50K.

AnnualMaintenance Cost: Low=values &lt$10K, Medium= values between $10Kand $20K, and High=values &gt$20K.

Table11 – Estimated Countermeasure Costs

Theabove stated values were used to approximate the cost based onstudies carried out from several outside sources to know the costs inrelation to the real production for every countermeasure.

Table 11 shows the results that were obtained.

POTENTIAL COUNTERMEASURES

Forecast

Mitigate

COOP

Capital

Operating

Maintenance

Sand Bags

x

L

L

L

Hurricane Shutters

x

x

x

L

L

L

Alarms

x

x

x

L

L

L

Locks

x

x

L

L

L

Shelter

x

x

x

H

H

H

Communication

x

x

x

H

H

H

Generators

x

x

x

H

H

H

Cameras

x

L

L

L

University Vehicles

x

x

x

H

H

H

Essential Staff

x

x

H

H

H

Food Supplies

x

x

L

L

L

Portable Water

x

x

L

L

L

Boards/Barriers

x

x

x

L

L

L

Table11 – Estimated Countermeasure Costs

Step6: Emergency Operational Planning.

TheAtlantic hurricane season occurs between 1stJune and 30thNovember every year. During this period, the Embry-RiddleAeronautical University and the state of Florida should ensure thatthere is keen observance of the storms that are developing. TheDaytona Beach Campus has an Emergency Operation Team which monitorsthe storms, and creates preventive and precautionary measures.

Attimes, the Hurricanes may be detected days before they happen whenthe operation team notices them. However, the ways that the stormsfollow may not be known. Due to this, the probabilities of strikezones are evaluated and analyzed and if the chance of a stormoccurring either directly in Daytona or its surroundings areconsidered likely to occur, the following chart is used to determinethe expected effect depending on the category of the storm at thetime of fall. The updates are issued to students through an emailwhich is sent to the campus email address, a school warning alertsystem and the Ernie website.

Theabove table is used to determine the action to be taken. The tableshows the magnitude of the storms and the actions that should betaken depending on the magnitude of the storm. For the sake ofsafety, the campus remains closed during and after hurricane. Theemergency personnel carries out safety inspections and any necessaryrepairs are carried out before the campus is reopened. When it issafe to return, the students are informed through the same means thatwere used to notify them when the storms were approaching (a schoolwarning system, Ernie website and the campus email system).

Step7: Recommendations.

Afterchecking all the data, Table 12 shows the final recommendations whichare based on the information which is collected from the previoustables.

Table 12. Analysis of Countermeasures

Countermeasure

Recommended (New)

Recommended

(Already in Use)

Not Recommended

(New)

Not Recommended (Already in Use)

Sand Bags

X

Hurricane Shutters

X

Alarms

X

Locks

X

Shelter

X

Communication

X

Generators

X

Cameras

X

University Vehicles

X

Essential Staff

X

Food Supplies

X

Potable Water

X

Boards/Barriers

X

Sandbags.

Sandbagsare flood control methods which are time tested. They are cheap andvery effective in ensuring that water is kept out of the buildings.The experts recommends Embry-Riddle to use sandbags as one of themethods of preparing for hurricane.

HurricaneShutters.

Theseare used for mitigation to ensure that houses and other structuresare not destroyed by storms. The use of hurricane shutters can savebuildings and other structures from being destroyed when theHurricane occurs.

Alarms.

Theseones are used to warn of incoming storms. They are very useful sincethey warn people in advance and thus they are not caught unaware. Theemergency operation team should ensure that alarms are well fittedand that they are functional.

Locks.

Theseare important for securing buildings during the Hurricane to ensurethat university materials are safe. During such calamities, a lot ofproperty is stolen from the university. It is therefore important toensure that the buildings and all the equipment are well secured.

Shelter.

Shelteris very important for people to stay during storms. People shouldhave safe places to stay and ensure that they are not drowned by thefloods. The shelter should be very safe from destruction by floodsand storms.

Communication.

Thereshould be effective communication means to ensure that everyone getsany message that is relayed. The communication about warnings andreopening of the campus after floods should reach all the people andthus there must be effective communication means.

Generators.

Generatorsare very important for providing alternative source of power. Whenthe Hurricane occurs, there are a lot of power disruptions theelectricity is likely to face problems. The generators are veryimportant at this time to provide power.

Cameras.

Althoughcameras are very important for capturing all the events as theyoccur, they are not very necessary as precaution measures. They canonly be used to provide evidence after the calamity but they cannothelp in preventing damage. They are therefore not very necessary.

Universityvehicles.

Universityvehicles are very important for ferrying students, staff andmaterials from one point to another. However, during the floods, theyare not very useful. They cannot easily move when there are floodsand thus they are not a significant protective measure during floods.

Essentialstaff.

Essentialstaff are very important in helping people during floods. Since theyare experts, they can give specialized advices on how to go aboutduring the floods. They are therefore very vital during this period.

Foodsupplies.

Foodsupplies are very important during floods. When the hurricane occurs,most of the food stores are destroyed. Most people do not have accessto food since they cannot afford to carry enough when moving to safeplaces. The emergency operation team should therefore ensure thatpeople are supplied with food.

Portablewater.

Duringfloods, most people do not have access to clean drinking water. Mostof the water sources are destroyed. It is therefore very importantfor people to ensure that they have portable water which they candrink as they look for safer places.

Boards/Barriers.

Thereshould be boards and/or barriers to warn people of the dangerousplaces where they should not go. These should be placed clearly inthe dangerous places to ensure that people do not risk their lives.