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Diabetes

DIABETES

is thecondition characterized by malfunctions in the production and use ofinsulin. The pancreas may produce inadequate insulin or the body mayexhibit resistance towards it. The major types include type 1, type 2and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, insulin-dependent (IDDM),results when there is the insufficient production of insulin. Type 2diabetes, non-insulin dependent (NIDDM), is caused by the reducedability of body cells to utilize the hormone effectively (Holt etal., 2011). Gestational diabetes results when the blood sugarlevel is more than optimum and lower than the diagnostic diabeteslevel. This paper discusses this condition regarding itsepidemiology, etiology, pathology, symptoms, and treatment.

Epidemiology

The WHO (2016) reports that there were 422 million people living withdiabetes in 2014. The prevalence of the disease among people over 18years was 8.5%. The prevalence is increasing at a high rate in middleand low-income nations. claimed the lives of about 1.5million people in 2012. WHO (2016) forecasts that the condition willbe the 7th leading cause of mortality in 2030.

Etiology

IDDM results whenthere is the lack of or insufficient insulin due to abnormalities ofthe beta cells in the pancreas. There is no known cause of thedestruction of beta cells. Type 1 diabetes may result from theinterplay between inherited genes, autoimmunity of beta cells andenvironmental factors such as viruses and toxins (Ozougwu et al.,2013). Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of factors such asinsulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, and environmentalfactors.

Pathology

In IDDM, thedestruction of beta cells results in the deficiency of insulinsecretion and metabolic malfunctions. Also, the pancreatic alphacells become activated and start excessive secretion of glucagon. Theelevated glucagon level increases the effects of metabolicabnormalities due to inadequate insulin. The progression of type 2diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance takes place in conjunctionwith the reduction in insulin secretion, primary cause. Fat and livercells exhibit resistance to insulin and thus, prevent it fromregulating the glucose levels in the blood.

Symptoms

The symptoms ofdiabetes include elevated thirst, increased urination frequency,extreme hunger, sudden loss of weight, feeling tired most of thetime, skin dryness, and blurred vision (CDC, 2015).

Treatment

There is no curefor diabetes. However, it can be managed through diet improvements,physical exercise, glucose level regulation, blood pressureintervention, and blood lipid control (WHO).

References

CDC (2015), Basics About , Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.htmlAccessed 12 November 2016

Holt, R. I. G., Cockram, C., Flyvbjerg, A., &amp Goldstein, B. J.(2011).&nbspTextbook of . New York, NY: John Wiley &ampSons.

Ozougwu, J. C., Obimba, K. C., Belonwu, C. D., &amp Unakalamba, C.B. (2013). The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2diabetes mellitus.&nbspJournal of Physiology andPathophysiology,&nbsp4(4), 46-57.

WHO, , Retrieved fromhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/Accessed 12 November 2016