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Diseases in Infancy

Diseasesin Infancy

Diseasesin Infancy

Ahealth article by Teresa Marino, titled ViralInfections and Pregnancy, explainsthat viral related diseases during pregnancy majorly contribute tothe fetal morbidity and mortality. One example is hepatitis E virus(Marino,2014).According to the article, hepatitis E virus has a high mortality ratein cases of pregnant women. Another example given is lymphocyticchoriomeningitis virus, which is a teratogenic rodent-borne virus.Another known teratogenic virus is Rubella. An infant with CRS(congenital rubella syndrome) suffers from limited growth,microcephaly, and cardiac defects. The infection of rubella isdifferent among infants. According to Marino, most infants acquirethe infection if the mother acquired rubella infection in the first16 weeks of her pregnancy. The rubella teratogen can also cause otherinfant diseases such as cataracts, which result between third andeighth week after gestation. Between the third and eighteenth week ofpregnancy, the teratogen may also lead to deafness and heartabnormalities to infants (Marino,2014).

Accordingto another article, TeratogenicEffect Zika Virus and the Role of Placenta,women, especially in Brazil are delivering microcephalic babies dueto Zika virus-induced teratogen (Adibiet al., 2016).The article insists that the teratogen is capable of reaching afoetus during the brain development stages, especially after thebeginning of maternal blood flow to the placenta. The teratogen isdangerous because Zika has an ability to evade normalimmunoprotective responses present in the placenta. The articleinsists that understanding the Zika virus as a teratogenic isimportant for people to be fully prepared in case of a futureepidemic (Adibiet al., 2016).This is to measure the risks the infancy born to women infectedduring pregnancy faces, and identify factors that modify the risks.

Thetwo articles explained above indicate that teratogens are a greatdanger to infant lives because they lead to birth defects. Thearticles also illustrate that chemicals, infections, and diseases inthe mothers are the main sources of teratogens. Some of theinfections or diseases include rubella, Hepatitis E, and Zika virus.


Adibi,J., Marques, E., Cartus, A., &amp Beigi, R. (2016). Teratogeniceffects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta. TheLancet,387(10027),1587-1590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00650-4

Marino,T. (2014). Viral Infections and Pregnancy. Retrieved fromhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/235213-overview