• Uncategorized



Riseof and the Internet

is the latest business platform that has provided an enhanced globalshopping experience. This is driven by the adoption of informationsystems and technology that has revolutionized business and viewed asthe epitome of success. Many companies in U.S and many othercountries have adopted technology, which has been the largest capitalcomponent to facilitate online shopping experience. Currently, atleast 50% of capital invested in every business in the United Statesis directed to information technology. The example of globalbusinesses that have gone the e-commerce way includes Alibaba,Amazon.com, Zappos.com, Wal-Mart, and E-bay among others [2]. Thesuccess of these companies is pegged on their ability to reach to awide market, and leverage on fact that they are not easilyconstrained with territorial policies. For example, Amazon can beable to distribute its products across any geographical regionwithout a need to have an operating license in that particularregion. In fact, the rise of e-commerce operations has paved way forthe continued growth and development of some of the big companies inthe world. Wal-Mart is one of the successful companies that havetaken advantage of the previously unexploited market space and theyhave continuously re-molded their operations to fit the changingneeds of the customers. There is no doubt that e-commerce hasrevolutionized the modern business space.

Theinternet has revolutionized businesses by taking them to the globaland virtual markets. With the e-commerce platform, these marketsinclude E-retailing, B2B, B2C, C2C, C2B, C2C, and B2G e-commercemodels. The objective of e-commerce is to enable offer an easier andreliable shopping platform to anyone and everyone who has an internetaccess. In the modern society, it is easy to order products orservices through the internet and this is by using mobile phones andother gadgets like the laptops. What is simply required in this caseis to connect to the internet and access a service provider orproduct retailer’s website and make an order. The trend isparticularly significant with the continued growth of the Internet ofThings (IoT) principles where almost everything is connected to theinternet [1].

provides a reliable, efficient, cost effective and timely approach toaccess the required services or products. In fact, through e-commercea business can be able to operate from a remote location so long asit is connected to the internet. The only primary factor thatdetermines the success of such a business it how it spreads out itsoperations and products on the internet space. The virtual onlinestores provide a viable option for the customers to compare a widerange of products or services before making a decision. Thus,e-commerce enhances decision making among customers. Through thevarious existing mobile based applications, companies can be able toenhance their sales at the least possible costs [2].

Considerthe case of Amazon.com, after making an order, the customer simplysits and waits for the product to be delivered to his or herlocation. However, the customer will be required to make a paymentwhich on most occasions can be made via PayPal or any relatedplatform or through credit cards. This shows that there is massiveinformation shared between the customer and the retailers, and thisexplains why some of these companies have devised technologies toensure that the privacy of their customers is sustained at all times.On most occasions customers are charged transit fee that may rangewidely depending on the size of the product, the destination and thetaxes in a region. For example, if the purchase is more than $5000and a charge of $2.50 for items less than that amount. As stated thecharge often depends on the supplier budget and distance to thelocation of the customers. There are merchants who offer freedeliveries in shorter distances [3].

Moste-commerce companies like Wal-Mart are mainly successful based on thetype of strategies they adopt and the customer experience. Wal-Marthas constantly come up with reliable technologies that foster theinteraction between the customers and the suppliers. Instead of thecompany managing the stock, it leaves the task to the suppliers whoconstantly log into the dedicated stock management systems to trackthe purchase of different products. Further, e-commerce companiesoffer services like the cash to delivery, 48 hours replacementallowance, free shipping, and great discounts occasionally in a bidto boost customer relations. The explosion of e-commerce in the 21stcentury is attributed to the high level interactions betweendifferent stakeholders [3]. Some of the essential stakeholders in themodel include:

  • Suppliers

  • Online payment merchants

  • Policy makers

  • Courier service companies

  • Advertising companies

  • Internet service providers

  • Technology companies

  • Media

  • Society

  • Customers

Thelist goes on and on as more and more people enters the online marketspace. The key to success in e-commerce is ensuring that customersget the right products, with the lowest possible cost, and at theshortest time possible. Value is an integral component in e-commerceand this explains why some of the major companies that have adoptedthe framework have been able to succeed than others. Just like thetraditional business model, the objective of every business in theinternet space is to earn profit. Thus, through e-commerce, companiesstrive to deliver the required products at the least cost possible,but trying to access a wide market space with minimal restrictions.The principle behind the operations in e-commerce is what you see iswhat you pay for or what you get [3]. The prices mentioned on thewebsites are what customers pay for, thus, e-commerce can be depictedas a traditional supermarket with the difference being that,e-commerce inclined businesses are operating in the online platform.

E-CommerceStrategy and the Law

Thetheory behind the success of any new or established business ventureis a good strategy which is reflected by crafting business goals andobjectives. These plans give directions on how to increase revenue inthe new markets and from the existing customers. It also caters forthe type of business to carry out and also how to gain new customers.Similarly, a good business strategy will translate to increase in theaverage sales by providing new business channels. It also factors inthe price of items sold and when to provide discounted rates for theitems to be sold. It also takes into perspective when to slot infestive seasons so as to encourage more sales. This is seen duringChristmas seasons, Easter holidays and the Black Fridays when itemsare sold at discounted rates. This is prerequisite for e-commercesuccess as figured out in the goals set out in a business plan [1].

Thestrategic plan includes a SWOT analysis that helps in assessing thestrengths, weaknesses, business opportunities and threats prevailingin a business model and the current environment as well. The analysiswill tell the way the market will look like, including key strengths.It further explains where the business should venture in to order toexcel, and also pinpoint areas where it has faltered. This providesthe essential components and the review of the entire business andits segments.

Agood strategy also evaluates external opportunities and impendingbusiness threats. This is important to any business since it guideson where to invest money or where to focus resources. It is alsoimportant for any e-commerce business managers to be honest whenanalyzing weaknesses and threats since it will help in providing weakareas and where to focus. A good SWOT analysis should match theoverall vision. If there are any contravening clauses, they can beironed out so that a business can go beyond planned five years or 10years. It will help in developing business objectives both for thecurrent year and the future. This is crucial in setting objectivesand budgets for the production units, customers’ base, sales,profits, and the costs [7].

Learningenvironment is important to the e-commerce firms. This can be bestachieved by performing different management strategic analyses. PESTanalysis provides guidance on the political, economic, social and thetechnological environments. Since e-commerce models are done online,the deliveries of these items are physical and thus politicalstability is important. A stable business environment will translateinto an economically viable environment with peaceful coherence andsocial morals. The technological advancement is the catalyst and thebackbone of online business. Internet connectivity is the only avenueto online marketing and a resourceful asset for e-commerce. It alsoprovides a common platform for doing business, where the onlinecompany and online customers interacts. Porter`s Five Forces analysisgives an insight on the business competition in the online businessarena, which is characterized with new entrants, exit andavailability of substitutes. This analysis helps the company deviseways on how to survive in a technologically competitive environment.Proper formulation of the mission and the business objectives willtranslate ideas into actionable things in the industry.

Understandingthe e-commerce environment also comes with the need to understand thevarious state laws on online trading. Therefore, developing anambitious and strong business strategy for the company should caterfor the basic understanding of the e-commerce law. It is across-border business and therefore, understanding internationalbusiness law is paramount in order to ensure that the business iscushioned from legal shocks. The online sellers, especially thoseinvolved in international or states trades may face differentfinancial and legal constraints. This is often seen in the privacy,copyright, security and tax systems [9].

Onlinetrade is impacted by a number of factors and top of the list includeissues like privacy, data security, conformity with the existing lawsand standards, and lack of a proper authenticated operatingenvironment. The Federal Trade Commission has devised variousregulations aimed at ensuring that businesses operating in the onlineplatform are properly regulation. Some of these regulations coversuch aspects as online promotions, use of emails, and consumerprivacy. Since online trade leads to the accumulation of massivedata, there is a need to ensure that the sensitive data is protectedat all times. Online businesses need to have a solid securityframework and ensure that they conform to the CIA Triad(confidentiality, integrity, and availability).

Justlike other traditional businesses, e-commerce companies need toensure that they efficiently utilize their online space. This isparticularly important in trying to reach out to a large customerbase or informing customers on new products. However, there is alwaysa need to adhere to the stipulated regulations. The laws are meant toprotect the consumers and compel businesses to pursue theiractivities while taking into consideration the needs of thecustomers. For example, the digital millennium copyright act wasmeant to protect the ownership of digital content [2]. DMCA andprovides several provisions that ensure that e-commerce businessessafeguard the copyright as well as the service providers’responsibilities.

Designingand Effective E-Commerce Website

Thee-commerce websites are designed in a way that looks good anduser-friendly. It is all about the usability and the user experience.Most businesses go into website design and development with lessemphasis on flashy logos, elaborate backgrounds, and animatedbuttons, but with the main focus on features that are likely tocreate interest in your product or service. For example, Amazom.comfeatures have seen it top in the e-commerce sector and becomesuccessful and efficient in service delivery. It has the followingfeatures: a compelling home page that attracts online visitors andshoppers to enter the site. It provides various options and commandsthat are visually attractive to clients. It also gives customers theopportunity to visit those sites and convinced to navigate throughvarious sites and shop for products that meet their eyes. The websitealso explains what they do, not just how they do them. This is thebackbone of the business since it gives information that isostensible and can be easily found on the home page. Thirdly, the webpage should give facts about the company [2]. It should not hidebehind generic statements and fluffy descriptions but focus onspecific statements could apply to the business such as ‘committedto quality service delivery and customer satisfaction.

Sinceit relies on the internet, customer services can be best served withsynchronized call-to-action services on every page. This will notonly persuade someone to take action but assist in advising whom tocontact, subscribe or even when purchasing the product. It is alsoimportant to make the site as navigation logical as possible. Thewalk-through menu should be the center of focus. The menu should bedeveloped in a way that is not only attractive but also capturesone’s attention. This will help customers know and understand whatthey want to purchase. To make these processes easy, most onlinebusinesses positions commands that guides visitors and directs themwhere they should be [3]. Thus, this eases their search and enablesthem to locate what they want. Furthermore, there is a need foronline businesses to improve every page off with specific keywords.This will help in ranking services on the search engines.

Thesuccess of the online business also relies on the transparency of thebusiness. This is seen with the inclusion of tributes, previous casestudies and customer records. The recommendations and reviews fromcustomers have a great impact on the business success. These votes ofcertainty and positive reviews enhance company credibility andbusiness power. This can be changed further to incorporate the use ofgood images [12]. The stock items are maybe excessively generic andoverly fake, making it impossible, thus failing to make a goodimpression to clients. Subsequently, this gives clients a betteropportunity to understand items that are discounted. It is importantto distinguish what is needed by the customers to take and then leadthem by providing such items. This incorporates understandingclients’ sites and where customers enter that site, the request ofpages they are a survey and the pages they exit from. It is importantto modify these sites and direct customers to take a look and allurethem to shop on the online. builds databases for itscustomer. They are needed to register so as to order items using onthe website. The customers are assigned log-in rights that areconfidential, and they are responsible keeping and modifying theiraccount credentials such usernames and passwords [3]. This willprevent unauthorized access to their profiles. Also, they offer giftvouchers and hampers for every single customer who purchases any itemonline through their active online shopping cart. This motivatescustomers to buy more from the website since they perceive that thereis a value derived from such purchases.


Ina bid to enhance their operations, e-commerce affiliated companiesoffer programs to foster customer loyalty. Through links, thecompanies are able to offer commissions to the users who follow thelinks in their purchase process. As stated before, customers are ableto pay for the products by using online payment systems or other bankrelated payment systems like the credit cards. At the same time, theaffiliate program is meant to foster the role of middlemen in theonline platform. Bloggers and users of social media platforms canadvertise products and receive commissions if those products arepurchased through their links [12]. The approach is particularlyimportant when it comes to companies involved in the technologicalproducts or services. Companies like Microsoft, Apple, and Samsungcan leverage on this programs to enhance their activities in theinternet and more particularly in the sale of their products.

OnlineMarket Space and Opportunity

Amarket space describes a particular operating area for a company.This is an intended area of selling products or services. Forexample, the market space of JP and Morgan is in the U.S and in thephysical states in the region. This is a bit different when it comesto the online market that lacks specific boundaries, and thisexplains why one cannot conclude that Amazon’s market space is theU.S, this is simply because the internet goes beyond the country.Thus, e-commerce adopts a universal operating framework which is notrestricted to any specific geographical region, and making it easierfor online based companies to have a large and unrestricted marketspace [4].

Onlinecompanies can use their websites or existing social networking sitesto access their customers in any part of the world. The use of socialmedia sites such as Facebook and Twitter is significant inadvertising company products. Most importantly these sites are freelyaccessed and do not charge huge amount of money like the traditionalmarketing models (TVs, Newspaper). Moreover, they have a larger scopeand can reach all people, regardless of age, gender, or socialstatus. This online frontier for most e-commerce businesses leads toembracing not only small clients but also big clients and shun awaycompetitors [4]. Further, it creates a need to emancipate thecustomers on new trends and appropriately link them with thesuppliers.


Businessmodels are set of planned activities designed to result in a profitin a marketplace. They are developed from business plan, whichdescribes the firm business approach and models. The business models identified aims to use and leverage the uniquequalities of Internet and Web. These models include Business toBusiness (B2B), Business to Consumer (B2C), Consumer to Business(C2B) and Consumer to Consumer (C2C).

Businessto Business (B2B)

TheB2B business model is one of the successful models that hasdomineered online market. As the name suggests, the model involvesdifferent companies transacting business with one another. This isseen in the manufacturing industry where good are sold todistributors and wholesalers who will eventually distribute tosmall-scale retailers. As compare to other models, its businessactivities and the engagement with some businesses, its operationsare larger and extensive unlike for the B2C model. The turnover andthe profits are high as compared these other models and it hasattracted the majority of the businessmen who opt to focus on B2B dueto discounted rates, bulk delivery and higher profit margins for thewholesalers who partners with the B2B companies. A classic example ofthis case is where the total sales made by B2C model in 2014 wasvalued to be around $102–$118,000 million as compared to anestimated of $1,400,000 billion for all the revenues earned from B2Bmodel in 2014 [1].

TheB2B model can adopt E-distributor framework which connects thesuppliers for the product and services with the individualbusinesses. The e-distribution networks are owned by a single companythat seeks to serve unlimited customers. It factors in the size ofthe industry and carries items to different clients. An example ofthis system can be applicable in supplying computer systems to allsenior government schools within the City Council of Austin. TheState could have placed an online order, and the distributor opts tohave the order prepared as per every school and dispatched once. Theamount of products and services that an e-distributor places on itsbusiness sites attracts more and potential customers to the site. Itis also judicious to have at least one-stop shopping site which canbe referred to by the clients instead of wasting time and navigatingon numerous sites in search of particular products.

TheB2B demonstrate uses e-procurement firms that make and access theadvanced digital markets. A case of this is Ariba, which hasprogrammed software that helps firms sort out their procurementprocedures by making smaller but advanced markets for growing firms.It makes specially incorporated online catalogs where firms, forexample, the provider can list their offerings for acquiring firms.An example of B2B e-procurement is where a business sells services toother firms [5]. These organizations giving rendering services at feecharges, based on the quantity of workstations utilizing theservices, or fixed yearly licensing expenses. Indeed, they offer tobuy firms a better arrangement of sourcing and supply networks thatallow firms to cut down inventory costs. An example of such firm isthe ASP. This is the company that offers access services such asInternet-based applications to other businesses. The firm can renderits services at relatively low costs and thus achieving the scaleeconomies [7].

Themarketplace or the exchange for a B2B center is the digitalelectronic marketplace. This is where the suppliers and buyers engageone another and conduct business. An example is the industryconsortia. This is where the renowned vertical marketplaces work forthe specific clienteles. These include the motor industry, chemical,and the logging industries. When compared to the horizontal markets,they are quite different they sell explicit products to severalcompanies [5].

Theprivate networks constitute around 75% of all B2B uses by huge firmsand far surpass the uses for all types of Net commercial centers.These private systems are digital connections however, they areregularly associated with the web-based systems that are intended toarrange the flow of communication among firms occupied with businesstogether. An example of this is the Wal-Mart. It operates one of thelargest private networks that have eased distribution of good to itsconsumers. The management of the business can adopt this basis so asto use in evaluating sales movements as quantified in some dispatchedshipments and the constant inventory levels. In a report issued bythe Department of Commerce U.S, the majority of the B2B e-commerce,about 70% uses an electronic data interchange which is said to be anolder technology called. They are still working on the integrationprocess especially on the latest development [7].

Businessto Consumer (B2C)

TheB2C model encompasses the interaction between businesses and thecustomers in the market. In this case businesses or organizationsmarket their products and customers make purchases. This is one ofthe most common models and it tends to take the traditional approachof businesses engaging with the customers. The model meets personaldemands and often perceived by majority as the ‘e-commercebusiness.’ An example of the B2C model is the Amazon.com,Priceline.com and MSN.com. B2Cs leverage on the uses of a combinationof advertisements, subscriptions and the transactional revenuemodels. It is an open system and can be either general orspecialized. This model can be used to access integrated contentservices such as news, email, video steaming, music downloads andonline calendars. Another B2C online business model is the e-tailer.It is the version of traditional retailing services, which offersproducts and services to specific marketplace. This is well done bythe Sailnet.com, Wal-Mart.com and the Amazon.com [10]. The platformalso provide virtual merchant where customers can shop at any timefrom their remote locations. This is often seen in the sale of goodsand services. It also gives an alternate mode of shopping whereclients can visit the physical stores and pick whatever they need.The types of these businesses include:

  • Virtual merchants,

  • Clicks and bricks

  • Catalog merchant

  • Direct sale of goods by manufacturers to the customers.

Thecontent providers are also part of the B2C business models. Theyprovide information and entertainment services that are available onthe internet. In 2014, the largest B2C revenue was generated by thecontent providers. This shows that customers subscribe toweb-contents which can be done either in daily or monthlysubscriptions, paid for any download. Though there is an indicationand variation of standard content provider model, customers canprocesses the content online and adopts what suits him or her [11].The primary value proposition is saving money and time. Someindustries use this application so as to meet individual demands andthis is seen in the financial institutions, travel services and thejob placement services.

Consumerto Business (C2B)

Inthe C2B model, consumers tend to be in the driving set. They post aproject and companies bid to get assigned to complete or deliver theproducts to the customers based on the budget value. It is alsoreferred to as the reverse auction. The customer creates value forthe item while the business consumes. The website is designed in away that it collects bids and the seller is offered these bids. Anexample of this model is Elance site. It is also common in theelectronic commerce model where consumers offer their products andservices to the company which in return process and pay the clients[5].

Consumerto Consumer (C2C)

TheC2C model takes into perspective platforms in the internet spacetermed as auction sites or forums of purchase like E-bay. In suchplatforms customer can make purchases or sales without necessarygoing to a shop. Craigslist and Etsy are also some of the companiesthat have embraced this model. The companies under the model chargesnon-refundable fees when an item is listed on the site. The system isdesigned in a manner that allows bidding and once an item is bid, itis removed and the information stored in the background. The sitedoes charge the seller for placing their items on the site unlikesome which charge the buyer. The main advantage of this model is theelimination of the middlemen who are perceived to exploit both thesupplier and the buyer. The customer can sell his or her items at thecomfort of his or her home without necessarily going to the marketplace. A wide range of these products are second-hand goods. Thebuying and selling is simplified with no distribution and searchcosts. The transactions can take place at a swift rate and paymentscan be made using PayPal. Though there are some cases of frauds thatare related to the internet-based auction, the goods sold on thewebsite authenticated [3]. However, there have been cases where somecustomers have been charged exorbitantly owing to the inflated pricesdue to the bids made. There have been instances of identity theftwhere some sites have registered people with same names such as eBay.


is evolving day in day out, and this is because of the versatile anddynamic business environment. Apart from the four e-commerce models,there are additional models, and they include Consumer to consumer,M-commerce model and the peer-to peer models. These models aredevelopments of the previous models that have been operational in themarket [6].

Consumerto Consumer (C2C) Model

Thefoundation of the C2C model is pegged on enhancing interactionsbetween the customers themselves. Thus, in this case the consumersbuy and sale to each other. This interaction often is said to dealwith household goods and appliances. The model is also good for itemsthat are not perishable or second-hand items that may be posted by aconsumer on a platform for a consumer to buy. They items are oftensaid to be cheap. E-bay is a good business platform that makes use ofthe C2C model [6].

Peerto Peer (P2P) Model

TheP2P model is one of the latest in the market that offers an easierapproach of sharing files and internet resources without the specificuse of a server. This means that with a P2P model one can be able totrim down the operating costs immensely. The primary objective of themodel is to facilitate access to information within the shortest timepossible and at the least cost possible. The principle behind the P2Pmodel is pegged on the foundation of sharing as an approach of savingon time and resources. Over the last five years, the use of P2P hascome under immense criticism as cases of sharing copyrightedmaterials are on the rise. In fact, at some point some companiesbanned the use of the P2P framework in the content industry.


M-commerceis the recent and the latest development in the e-commerce arena. Itis also referred to as the mobile-commerce.The model can be termed as an improvement of the traditionale-commerce model with the only difference being that the modelleverages on higher forms of technology. An app is installed in themobile phone which is rooted to the internet. One can freely accessonline items even in remote areas where the local area network orWi-Fi can reach. The model is resonating well in the industry sinceit allows ease navigations on the internet, identification of anitem, placing an order and finally making payments for the selecteditem. The recent rapid innovation seen in mobile allows tracking oforder processing and also delivery [8]. This helps customers monitorthe delivery since he or she can issue direction by using Googlemaps. However, the growth is not as dramatic in the US as for otherbusiness models.


TheGold Rush Model

Thesuccess of e-commerce is attributed to the enabling environment thathas transformed the online development. As explained in the Gold RushModel, more than half a million miners mined in California, however,only a few became rich. The wealth was accumulated by the bankinginstitutions, shipping companies, hardware and the real estateinvestors who earned fortunes from supporting gold business. It wasalso seen in the clothing industry where Levi Strauss did well in itsbusiness ventures [7]. Similarly, the e-commerce, every model of thebusiness is complete only if it is supported by a wide range ofbusinesses focused on providing a reliable infrastructure fore-commerce operations. Some of the major e-commerce enablers include:

  • Internet

  • Support Companies

Companiesthat have supported hardware web servers and the software server andoperating systems are IBM, Dell, HP and Sun while Microsoft, Sun andApache software foundation are some of the software providers. Ciscoand the Lucent are some of the network providers that supportinternet connectivity. Security is another infrastructure thatenhances the web content integrity and confidentiality by usingencryption software such as those sold by VeriSign, PGP Corporationand the Check Point companies. Some providers have gone further anddeveloped e-commerce software systems that supports B2C and B2Bsystems to business. These companies include IBM, Microsoft and theBroad Vision. Apple, Microsoft and the Real Networks providestreaming media solutions that ease the e-commerce transactions. Itis also paramount to note that customer care and relationship is thesuccess of the business and for any e-commerce model to besuccessful, it has to collaborate with companies such as PeopleSoft,Siebel and the SAP so as to facilitate this crucial infrastructure.Furthermore, the success of every business model is measured based onthe revenue turnover. Thus, this is important take into considerationin such infrastructure by developing reliable payment systems thatwill provide a platform for paying for the items and services. Theseinfrastructures can be obtained from PayPal, VeriSign and the Cybercash [4].

Databaseand hosting services are essential infrastructure that keep businessinformation and provide back up for business operation. Theseservices can also be obtained from companies such are Oracle, IBM,Sybase, Microsoft and Web Intellects. Finally, business performanceenhancement is an important infrastructure since it supports controlsystems and guides on what to be corrected. This facility can beobtained from Akamai, Cidera, Inktomi and Cache Flow companies. Ifthese enablers are given a priority in any e-commerce business model,the business will thrive well since they provide avenues for success.For example the payment systems should be highly secured to ensurethat items sold online must be paid. This affirms the fact thatrevenue is only recognized when the item has been sold. Good systemsprevent fraudulent activities and thus fraudsters are not able toaccess the company sensitive information [1].


has modernized the business system. In the lasts centuries, itstarted with the barter trade and eventually rolled to goodsquantified in terms of money. Before the onset of the cash system,people used the barter system where goods were exchanged for goods.There were physical meetings and exchange for these items. However,in the past decade, there has been a tremendous change in thebusiness environment. The modern society is characterized byextensive use of the internet. Businesses have adopted the use of theinternet and this explains the birth of e-commerce. This wasnecessitated by the evolving money markets where society transitionedfrom the cash based system to the online cashless system. A cashlesssystem has been adopted where one can obtain goods and wire funds toa seller’s account. This is also effected by the use of debit andcredit cards, where payments for goods are made without necessarilycarrying cash.

Thebusiness revolution has also transformed service delivery.Manufactures and the sellers have developed websites that arecustomized. These websites allow navigation and the search for itemsthat meets the needs of the customers. The type of a business is alsoconsidered be it business to business, business to consumer,consumer to business and consumer to consumer. Every model carriesspecific interest that is designed to satisfy the customers in themarket. All these models are internet-based and rely on the virtualconversations between the seller and the buyers. These models aretested to ensure that they are efficient and secure, and any changesmade every time a need arises.has enhanced shoppingexperience and provided customers with an easy shopping platformwhere they can place their orders and products delivered at theirdoorsteps. The efficiency and timeliness has relieved many customersfrom going into shopping stores and searching item after another toget the desired fit. With e-commerce model, the product is just aclick away.


has to come up and adhere to the evolving technological trends inbusiness. Similarly, businesses must ensure that they periodicallyupdate their websites with features that attract customers. The itemsbeing sold should be tagged with prices. This will guide thecustomers on selecting items that they can afford. It is alsoimportant to secure e-commerce models from online fraudsters. Strongantivirus software should be installed so as to secure the website.The use encryption systems like the homomorphic cryptosystems shouldbe adopted to enhance e-commerce. Control systems and the audittrails should be installed so as to monitor the system. It helps issecuring databases as well as the clients information. Cloudcomputing is one of the latest developments that web engineers shouldconsider integrating with e-commerce in a bid to foster reliability,efficiency and lower operating costs.


[1]M.Abou-Shouk, W. Lim and P. Megicks, &quotUsing competing models toevaluate the role of environmental pressures in ecommerce adoption bysmall and medium sized travel agents in a developingcountry&quot,&nbspTourismManagement, vol. 52, pp. 327-339,2016.

[2]A.Gökmen, &quotVirtual business operations, e-commerce &amp itssignificance and the case of Turkey: current situation and itspotential&quot,&nbspElectronicCommerce Research, vol. 12, no. 1,pp. 31-51, 2011.

[3]S.Nayagam, &quotSignificance of Customer Effective E-Commerce Websitesfor Hotel Industry”, Journal ofCommerce and Management Thought,vol. 5, no. 3, p. 424, 2014.

[4]Un-Seok An, &quotAn Effect of Social Commerce Motivations onCustomer Loyalty: Focused on Social Commerce Provider Trust andSocial Commerce Supplier Trust&quot,&nbspJournalof Korea Service Management Society,vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 201-228, 2013.

[5]J.Mistry, &quotPerformance Measurement In The e-commerceIndustry&quot,&nbspJournalof Business &amp Economics Research (JBER),vol. 1, no. 11, 2011.

[6]V.SHARMA, &quotA Study about Management and Business Issues ofEcommerce&quot,&nbspIOSRJournal of Business and Management,vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-5, 2012.

[7]U.Baumöl, &quote-commerce – Der Kunde ist im Netz&quot,&nbspCON,vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 281-283, 2013.

[8]D.Zhang and P. Shrestha, &quotDoing business in Second Life:e-commerce in 3D online environment”,International Journal of Electronic Business,vol. 8, no. 2, p. 148, 2010.

[9]Jongkyoung Kim and Shin, Hae-Woong, &quotStudies on VibrationCharacteristics of Transportation Environment for Safe Delivery&quot,&nbsptheebusinessstudies,vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 611-626, 2015.

[10]J.Lee, &quotDual Effect of Price in E-Commerce Environment: Focusingon Trust and Distrust Building Processes&quot,&nbspAsiaPacific Journal of Information Systems,vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 393-415, 2014.

[11]R.Miller and F. Cross,&nbspThelegal environment today, 1st ed.Mason, Ohio: Thomson/West, 2007.

[12]B.Keillor and T. Wilkinson,&nbspInternationalbusiness in the 21st century, 1sted. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2011.