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Effects of Dental Caries in Children

Effectsof Dental Caries in Children

Effectsof Dental Caries in Children

Abstract

Thisresearch is a discussion on the effects of dental caries to children.It is a summary of various articles which are studies on severalaspects regarding dental caries. To begin with is an understanding ofthe condition to children, what it entails and the possible impacts.It is noted that dental caries is a condition that affects mostchildren which emanate from intake of foods that are high in sugarcontent. As a result, there is bacterial action in the enamelresulting in its eruption. Dental carries are what result later on todental cavity. In this paper also is a discussion on the variousmethods used in the articles and studies. It is noted that there areboth qualitative and quantitative methods involving questionnairesand numerical data collection respectively. Some of the methods usedin the studies include stratified cluster sampling, survey,descriptive analysis and cross-sectional studies. Included also, insummary, are the overall effects of dental caries in children whichare identified as either short or long term. Some of the short-termeffects include pain, headache, and insomnia. Essential to note isthat the effects are classified as both physical and psychological.While physical effects include poor growth development and reductionin weight, psychological effects entail stress, speech problem andsocial interaction. In the discussion also are the long term effectswhere some emanate from treatment such as permanent dentition.Included also in the discussion are summaries of ten articles thathave been conducted regarding the topic. Finally is a summary of thearticles in a table format based on several aspects among them themethodology and application to the evidence based proposal.

ResearchQuestion: What are the short and long term effects of dental cariesin children?

Oneof the most common oral health challenges in children is dentalcaries, a condition that has continuously affected this populationnegatively. It is noted that dental caries is a chronic illness thatis five times more common than asthma. Despite the decrease inprevalence of the condition in adults as result of permanentdentition, the condition in primary teeth is still common especiallyto children below the age of five (Moyer, 2014, Pg. 1102). When thecondition is left untreated, the effects are more severe which canresult in lesions and life-threatening infections. As a result, thetreatment costs have been noted to escalate which affects the child’sparents (Mclaren et al., 2016, Pg.1). Understanding the effects ofdental caries begins by first comprehending the major causes and therisk factors involved. One of the risk factors and common among mostchildren is the acquisition of the cariogenic bacteria which adheresto the enamel-producing acid as a result of metabolizing andfermenting the carbohydrates. This then deteriorate the intraoral Ph.and later promote demineralization of the tooth structure. A furtherdemineralization results in cavitation. Most common acquisition ofthe Mutans Streptococci (MS) is the child’s primary caregiver whois the mother through injected saliva. Other factors considered inthe acquisition of the bacteria are through poor oral hygiene andopen carious lesions (Marinho et al., 2013, Pg. 1).

Accordingto various findings, the condition emanates from intake of foods thatare rich in carbohydrates and other sugary products. The type of caregiven to the child also matters. For instance, the repeatedconsumption of foods that have fermentable carbohydrates from sippycup or bottle may result in the build-up of the carbohydrates in thechild’s mouth. Equally, feeding the child while asleep results inpoor flow of saliva which upon staying in the mouth for long,presence of MS can be detected. The reason why the condition iscommon in the primary teeth is that these teeth have less maturationwhen compared to the permanent ones (Herzog et al., 2016, pg.1).Additionally, the enamel and the dentin of the milk teeth are thinnerwhich results in the rapid eruption of the pulp. There is evidencethat links the early childhood cries and the socioeconomic status.This is manifested in the children with parents who are educated andthose with less education and income. Children from rich homes havebetter chances to avert dental caries as compared to those from poorfamilies (Hooley et al., 2012, Pg. 878).

Dentalcaries in children has severe consequences. Primary effects of thecondition are a reduction in the health and quality of child’slife. Early childhood caries has got several detrimental effects andconsequences on the health, status, and quality of life of children.The study by the author also reveals that the financial effect on thefamily is also a matter that has subjected most families to ambientpoverty due to hospital charges. However, the direct impacts ofearly childhood caries are infection and pain. The impactsautomatically affect the young one’s aptitude to eat. On the samenote, the research has clearly shown that kids with early childhoodcaries are at risk of weighing as less as 80% of their idyllicweight, matching into a criterion of failure to survive. As such, thenutritional shortages in growing children may cause lifelong effectson somatic growth and neural development. Normal development andgrowth can also be hindered because of sleep disturbances and pain.Additionally, dental caries in the key dentition is an indication ofa risk issue for future dental caries in the permanent and primarydentition. This involves pain and infection. As noted earlier, theeffects could be the short or long term (Dye et al., 2015, Pg. 2).While the short-term effects revolve around the daily activities ofthe child, the long-term effects are centered on the child’senvironment. Some of the short-term effects include pain, weight lossand thrive failure in the society. These direct effects are alsolinked to other conditions which include normal growth and sleepingchallenges which emanate from severe pain (Hayden et al., 2013, Pg.290). In the long term, the child’s neural development and somaticgrowth are affected. Considering the future, the effects of thechild’s health include primary and permanent complete removal ofthe teeth. To the parents and the social life of the child, theeffects include an expensive treatment which has an impact on theirsocio-economic welfare. As a result of these effects, there is needto develop intervention strategies that will enhance the quality oflife of children through reduction of pain, ensuring good sleep,improving their concentration in class which in turn improves theirmental development. In addition, effective strategies are imperativeto avert the effects on the parents and those surrounding the child.

Methods

Theresearch articles employed various methods which were bothquantitative and qualitative. Benzian et al. (2011) while analysingthe effects of the condition in school children employed thestratified cluster sampling in the national oral health survey.Jackson et al. (2011) used the child health assessment monitoringprogram to evaluate the 2008 data from North Carolina. Shakya,Shresta &amp Prasai (2013) used the pretested questionnaire toevaluate the effects of caries in Chepang children. Hakan Colak(2013) evaluated several literature regarding the subject. Mandal(2013) used the national survey of children health in data from 2003and 2011/2012. Colak et al. (2013) employed a descriptive analysis ofseveral materials on the effects of caries to children below the ageof 5 years. Chou et al. (2013) used the systematic review asdeveloped by the USPSTF to understand the preventive measures of thecondition in children below the age of 5 years. While evaluating theshort and long-term effects of dental caries in children, Bonecker etal. (2014) used cross-sectional studies on children between the ageof 5 and 12 years. Esa et al. (2014) used the DTMF and questionnaireon Malaysian government school children to evaluate the psychologicaleffects. While studying the impacts of dental caries on children’sgrowth, Sheiham (2016) used the literature review approach.

of the studies

Accordingto Benzian et al. (2011, Pg. 1), dental caries also referred to astooth decay is a chronic infection that majorly affects children. Theinfection is obtained from an interaction between bacteria and sugarynutrients in the enamel. This study aimed at mapping the impact ofdental caries in young children who were not treated for thecondition. The approach employed by this study was stratified clustersampling based in Philippine through the use of National Oral HealthSurvey. The study covered 17 regions of the nation in 68 elementarypublic schools. The range of years of evaluated children was 11 to13. Analysis of data was done through software, SAS 9.1 and alsoregression equation that involved odontogenic and BMI and Tooth decayand BMI. Specific symptoms identified by Benzian et al. (2011, Pg. 1)on tooth decay included dental pulp, pain, and discomfort, especiallywhen taking hot or cold water, reduced quality of life manifestedthrough insomnia, deficiency in concentration and restriction inactivity. A further result is that pulp extension in the dentalnerves causes tooth pain, fever, inflamed neck glands and foul smell.According to this study, leaving dental caries to become dentalcavity was a worse punishment to a child as it is affiliated withswollen jaws and pain when chewing.

Childrenwith dental caries are also noted to be absent from school frequentlyas suggested by Jackson et al. (2011, Pg. 1903) who evaluated 2183children in North Carolina. Some of the variable assessed by theresearch included race, gender, presence in school and excellencestatus. The study used a mixed approach, qualitative and quantitativewhile using the multivariable regression method to evaluate therelationship between academic performance, dental caries, andabsenteeism. The study, therefore, asserted the relationship betweenthe three aspects and it is most common in children from uninsuredhomes. In every child evaluated, the study showed an average of 0.49absenteeism with 17.3% of days missed being as a result of dentalcaries. Extrapolating these results represented a total loss of morethan 3 million education hours as a result of dental caries. Asstated in the hypothesis, it was concluded that dental caries resultsin children missing out classes as they stay at home to nurse theirhealth procedures and pain.

Mandal(2013, Pg. 170) showed that one of the greatest constraints inunderage children was tooth decay. This research was conducted in 50states other than Columbia district which aimed at evaluating thetooth loss, dental caries, and therapeutic services. This study madeuse of secondary data which was between 2003 and 2012 available atthe National Survey of children health. Research approach employedhere was the mixed method that involved both qualitative andquantitative method. Particularly in the quantitative method, themultivariable logistic regression was used to compare the outcomes ofthe fifty states as well as Columbia district. According to Mandal(2013, Pg. 173), the results showed that parents were now concernedwith their children health through therapeutic visits. In thejuveniles, there was an elevation of those who have good teeth in 26states although in 45 states there was a need to enhance preventionattention. This study concluded that children are at risk of dentalinfection resulting in losing their dentition.

Lackof treating dental caries has a negative impact on the children inboth short and long term. This is as concluded by Shakya, Shrestha &ampPrasai (2013, Pg. 15) who conducted a cross-sectional study ofconsequences of the untreated dental condition in children. The oralclinical assessment was conducted in 361 children as permitted by theinstitutional review board. The children were aged between 6 and 12years in third to fifth grade. The criterion used was that of WorldHealth Organization. A collection of data was through DMFT/deft andPUFA/puff index. The results of the study indicated 52% was due topoor oral hygiene the pain was reported by 31% of the children. Mostcommon effect of the dental caries was a loss of teeth especially ofthe 12-year-old. Some of the adverse effects included eatinginability, sleeping, reading and anxiety. The study also showed thatthe greatest challenge in averting the condition was tooth brushingwhere it was noted that only 24% of the children brushed their teethtwice per day. Considering psychological effect, 30% reported thatthey did not prefer their teeth color and the fact that theirextracted tooth disfigured their looks and made them unable to smile.There was also an aspect of low self-esteem and an impaired patternin development

Whileevaluating the long-term effects of dental caries in children, Hakan(2013, Pg. 2) ascertained that there is a risk of losing a tooththrough extraction which is identified as one of the imperativetreatments of caries. This study further suggested that losing amolar in the early stages of life results in orthodontic problems.Further, as a long term effect, dental caries are most likely toextend into adulthood. According to this research also, dental cariescan be attributed to affecting nutrition, quality of life of thechild and speech. The study concludes that there is a need to addressthe issue of dental health which will avert future consequences.Bonecker et al. (2014, Pg. 1) while comparing the short term and longterm effects of dental caries noted that some of the short termsinclude insomnia, pain, chewing challenges and impairment in chewing.On the other hand, the long-term effects included reduced quality oflife, slow growth, and low self-esteem. Their study was based onchildren whose teeth had erupted as a result of a given condition.The approach was both experimental and non-experimental with thematerials including a survey by SB Brazil projects and that byProgressive National Epidemiology.

Consideringthe psychological effects of dental caries in the adolescents whichare identified to have emanated from when they were children, Esa etal. (2014, Pg. 1) aimed at evaluating the relationship between thehealth and psychological health of an individual. The study used thesampling method, multi-stage stratification. Sample size selected was503 sixteen-year-old individuals from various Malaysian schools.Collecting data through the use of a questionnaire, some of theinformation was the participant’s demographic profile and dentalfear levels. The findings of this research were that Malaysian ruralareas adolescents had more fear regarding dental treatment ascompared to those living in the urban areas. This study concludedthat there is need to conduct a more holistic research to understandthe impact of the treatment in children. Notably, the hypothesis ofthis study was true, that there is a relationship between dental fearas psychological health and dental caries.

Whileaiming at understanding the short-term impacts of dental caries inchildren, Colak et al. (2013) evaluated the early childhood caries(ECC) effects on youngsters. The survey was done on children in bothhomes and clinics, those between 2 to 5 years. To reach ardentconclusions, inference and data analysis method was used. Some of thefindings of this research indicated a decrease in the ECC in thewestern nations. Core contributors to ECC were poor diets and badoral health. Some of the effects of the dental decay were physicaland psychological based. Globally, oral health is a public concern,and as Chou et al. (2013, Pg. 1) describe dental caries, it is aninfectious condition characterized by breaking the enamel of thetooth. In the US, it is a common disease in children between the ageof 2 and 5. Some of the common effects of this condition among themajority of children include loss of a tooth, pain, inhibiteddevelopment growth, affected speech and a reduction in weight. Whileevaluating the major causes of the condition, this study concurredwith the previous ones that diet rich in sugar and carbohydrates andlack of proper parental knowledge and guidance on dental health areassociated with dental caries. Chou et al. (2013, Pg. 1) research wasaimed at evaluating the impact of preventive interventions andscreening by the children caregivers to enhance the effects of dentalcaries in early childhood. The research used a systematic reviewapproach as developed by USPSTF. The area under study was the PacificNorthwest Evidence Based Practice Centre. Essential to note is thatthe study utilized several approaches which involved both randomizedand non-randomized control trials. Although no study provided the endresults that estimated the exact impact of screening by thecaregivers, there was one study that concluded on the pediatricianexamination being linked with tooth sensitivity. Three otherrandomized trials showed that fluoride application is adequate toprevent and care for caries.

Regardinggeneral health, dental caries has an effect on children growth andhave been neglected. Statistics indicate that 90% of caries globallygo untreated and to address the effects, there is a dire need todevelop profound solutions. According to Sheiham (2016, Pg. 1),common effects of the dental caries are toothache and discomfortwhich results in losing weight and reduced life quality. Nourishmentalso key in dental health and malnourished infants are likely todevelop dental caries which can extend to adulthood. The main causesof the condition are high sugar level intake which has an effect onthe tooth enamel. Sheiham (2016, Pg. 2) showed that some of the majoreffects of the condition on children include speech impairment,schooling factors such as absenteeism and insomnia. The effectaccording to this study is also manifested in those surrounding thechildren. For instance, close friends have no freedom of expressionand most of them tend to hide the infection. This study furtheracknowledges that dental caries treatment enables the child to sleepwell and eat a variety of foods.

Inconclusion, dental caries also referred to as tooth decay has beenidentified as one of the common conditions among children especiallythose aged between two and five years (Chou et al., 2013, Pg. 2).Various studies as indicated in the above discussion show that commoncauses of the condition include regular intake of sugary products andthose rich in the carbohydrates. Another major cause is a lack ofproper dental health such as brushing twice daily and parents nothaving adequate knowledge on the subject. Some of the identifiedeffects of the conditions include poor speech, loss of confidence,pain, discomfort, and absenteeism in class (Jackson et al., 2011, Pg.1903). Some of the ways through which these effects can be controlledinclude ensuring regular dental health check-up and maintaininghygiene.

TableSummary

Dental Caries Symptoms in School Age Children

Benzian et al.

July 13, 2011

Questions

What is the association between dental decay and low BMI?

What are the two highly prevalent conditions among 12-year old Filipino children?

Variables

Weight, height, demographic, socio-economic, caries prevalence and caries experience

Design

The research involved national oral health survey (NOHS) and the method used was stratified cluster sampling design.

Sample/Setting

The research involved 68 public elementary schools with more than 60 grade VI children in 17 regions. In every school, 30 grade VI children between 11-13 years were sampled

Findings

No high risk of falling below normal BMI for children with caries.

Children with pulp had a high chance of below the normal BMI as compared to those who did not have odontogenic infections.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Dental caries can be associated with BMI. Notably, children with caries are likely to fall below the BMI. As an EBP, there is need to develop better interventions to prevent caries in children

Dental caries and school absence in school age children

Jackson et al.

October 2011

Questions

Is there a relationship between school absenteeism and routine dental care, infection, and pain?

To what extent is the child’s oral health, related to their school attendance and performance?

Variables

School absences and performance, parental education, race, gender, health insurance coverage and oral health status.

Design

2008 data from North Carolina CHAMP (child health assessment and monitoring program)

Sample/Setting

2183 school children

Findings

Children who experienced poor dental health were more likely to miss school due to pain.

Dental caries, therefore, resulted in poor performance.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Poor oral health resulted in pain, missing school and thus poor performance. Education experience may, therefore, improve by enhancing oral health

Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal

Shakya, Shresta, and Prasai

May 14, 2013

Questions

Prevalence of dental caries,

Dental pain experience,

Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on dental health on Chepang schoolchildren

Variables

Pain, students’ knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices.

Design

Pretested questionnaires.

Sample/Setting

131 school children aged between 5 and 16 in grades 1-5

Findings

Most children eat high sugar foods daily and note that bacteria are the main cause of dental caries. Above 50% have received knowledge on oral health and observe dental hygiene such as brushing regularly.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

There is the prevalence of caries in 5-6-year-old schoolchildren. There are a significant number of children who suffer from oral pain. As an EBP, there is need to develop a national scientific proven intervention to prevent and control caries in school children

Long-term effects of dental disease in children

Hakan Colak

2013

Questions

What are the long-term effects of dental caries in children?

The impacts of untreated dental diseases.

Variables

Tooth decay, hemoglobin, tooth loss, height, and weight

Design

Literature review

Sample/Setting

Children below the age of 5

Findings

There are long term effects of dental caries which majorly involve child’s general growth such as poor speech and tooth decay. Most common treatment for caries is through tooth loss. Children with dental caries are likely to face a dental challenge as adults.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Long-term effects of dental caries in children include poor speech, reduced growth, and physical development. Poor oral health is likely to continue to adulthood. Effective strategies to improve oral health and hygiene are important to consider which averts permanent dentation.

Changes in children oral health status and receipt of preventive dental visits in the United States.

Mandal

December 5, 2013

Questions

The relationship between dental caries and tooth loss in school children and the therapeutic measures.

Variables

Dental health, tooth loss, parental reporting and therapeutic measures

Design

The national survey of children health in data from 2003 and 2011/2012.

Sample/Setting

Children from 1-13 years

Findings

Between 2003 and 2011/2012, the number of preventive dental visits increased

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Variation in acquiring preventive dental services is still an issue and understanding the difference is important in averting challenges affiliated to child’s oral health.

Short term effects of dental caries in children

Colak et al.

2013

Questions

The short and long term effects of dental caries in children

Variables

Early childhood caries (ECC), feeding and fluoride

Design

Descriptive analysis

Sample/Setting

Children aged between 2-5 years

Findings

ECC begins at an early life, and there are both social and economic impacts. ECC is prevalent in most children and develops to permanent dentitions. Main causes are high sugar levels and poor oral hygiene.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Tooth decay is not self-limiting. To treat this condition require professionalism which restores tooth function.

Health effects of dental caries in children

Chou et al

August 2013

Questions

To understand the preventive measures of dental caries in children under the age of 5 years

Variables

Dental caries, treatment, prevention, children, education and counseling.

Design

Systematic review developed by USPSTF

Sample/Setting

Children under the age of 5

Findings

Fluoride varnish is effective in the prevention of dental caries. There is also reduced the quality of life as a result of dental caries which prompts for counseling.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Fluoride is evidently essential for children suffering from dental caries, and more intervention strategies are required. There is also need to educate both children and parents on oral health.

Long versus short-term effects of dental caries in children

Bonecker, Abanto, Tello &amp Oliveira

2014

Questions

The current dental caries situation prevalence in children.

The impact of dental caries on the quality of life.

Variables

Quality of life, children, dental caries and preschool

Design

Cross-sectional studies

Sample/Setting

5 and 12-year-old children

Findings

Dental caries is prevalent in school children with the impacts being both short and long. While the short ones include reduced life quality, missing school, pain and stress in school, long term involved low self-esteem and losing teeth.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

The issue of dental health is important to evaluate in children who will assist in improving sleep quality, improve weight and reduce pain levels. it is, therefore, important for healthcare providers to develop better intervention strategies to avert the situation

Psychological effects of dental caries in adolescents

Esa et al

2014

Questions

Are residence and place an arbitrator in existing relationship between dental caries and dental fears?

Variables

Dental fear, demographic profile, dental caries.

Design

DMFT and questionnaire in Malaysian government secondary schools.

Sample/Setting

503, 16 year old in Malaysian government secondary schools

Findings

There is more prevalence of dental caries in children living in rural areas that those in the urban part of Malaysia.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

There is a relationship between dental caries and fear to get treatment. Therefore, there is need to develop complex future models to understand the effects of dental treatment fear in children.

Effects of dental caries on children’s growth

Sheiham

2016

Questions

Does dental caries affect body weights, quality of life and growth in preschool children?

Variables

Dental caries, quality of life and growth.

Design

Literature review

Sample/Setting

Preschool children under the age of 5

Findings

The main cause of dental caries is high sugar intake. The effects include reduced quality of life, weight loss, poor performance and reduced social interaction.

Conclusion and applicability to EBP

Dental caries is prevalent in children under the age of 5 with both short and long term effects. There is a need to develop better treatment plans and sensitize on parents role in preventing this condition which will enhance the child’s quality of life.

References

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Herzog,K., Scott, J. M., Hujoel, P., &amp Seminario, A. L. (2016).Association of vitamin D and dental caries in children: Findings fromthe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006.&nbspTheJournal of the American Dental Association,&nbsp147(6),413-420.

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Jackson,S. L., Vann Jr, W. F., Kotch, J. B., Pahel, B. T., &amp Lee, J. Y.(2011). Impact of poor oral health on children`s school attendanceand performance.&nbspAmericanJournal of Public Health,&nbsp101(10),1900-1906.

Mandal,M. (2013). Changes in Children’s Oral Health Status and Receipt ofPreventive Dental Visits, United States, 2003–2011/2012.&nbspPreventingchronic disease,&nbsp10(8),166-174.

Marinho,V. C., Worthington, H. V., Walsh, T., &amp Clarkson, J. E. (2013).Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children andadolescents.&nbspCochraneDatabase Syst Rev,&nbsp7(11).

McLaren,L., McNeil, D. A., Potestio, M., Patterson, S., Thawer, S., Faris,P., … &amp Shwart, L. (2016). Equity in children’s dental cariesbefore and after cessation of community water fluoridation:differential impact by dental insurance status and geographicmaterial deprivation.&nbspInternationaljournal for equity in health,&nbsp15(1),1.

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Sheiham,A. (2016). Dental caries affects body weight, growth, and the qualityof life in pre-school children. BritishDental Journal,625 – 626. Retrieved 15thOctober 15, 2016, fromhttp://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v201/n10/full/4814259a.html