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Effects of socioeconomic and illiteracy on educational achievement of children

EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND ILLITERACY ON EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN 1

Effects of socioeconomic and illiteracy on educational achievement ofchildren

Date of submission:

Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 3

Introduction 3

Background 3

Problem statement 9

Rationale for study 12

Significance of the study 13

Nature of the study 15

Research questions and hypothesis 17

Definition of terms 18

Assumptions 19

Scope, limitations and delimitations 20

Chapter summary 21

References: 23

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONIntroduction

It is a common opinion that education not only provides knowledge andskills, but it also inculcates a set of values and guidelines thathelp parents to train their children’s instincts. This defines therole of the parents in determining their children’s academicfuture. Accordingly, the parents’ self-cultivated attitudes andhabits are passed on to their children. There is an underlyingopinion among educationists that cultural heritage and values arepassed on from one generation to another through education(Barnhardt, 2014). This is among the fundamental reasons why thesociety holds a strong opinion that the training of a child is theparents’ responsibility. Also, according to social understanding,education can be an instrument for driving cultural change. Based onthis, this paper asserts that is not out of place for the society toimagine that parental socio-economic background can influencechildren’s academic performance. Regardless of the level and stageof impact of the parents’ socioeconomic status, it is inevitablethat this factor affects their education or disposition to it. Hence,this paper seeks to establish the influence of parental socioeconomicstatus and literacy on the educational performance of the children.

Background

For a long time, scholars have made an observation about the role ofparents on their children’s development. Parents of differentoccupational classes have been observed to have different styles ofchild management. They have different ways of disciplining theirchildren, correcting and guiding them, as well as counselling themthrough the challenges of personal and social life (Durand, 2011). Itis worthwhile to note that while all, if not a majority of modernparents aim to instill best practices in their children, parentingstyles are often unique and differ in one way or the other. Thedifferences in child management and parenting styles do not expressthemselves consistently as many would expect in modern families, butthey influence the average characteristics of the members of thatfamily, especially the children.

Consensushas been built around the influence of the socioeconomic status ofparents on their children’s welfare, especially in academicmatters. However, it is imperative to note that the matter does notaddress negativities only. For instance, some parents of lowsocioeconomic background, and even some with low levels of literacy,have been able to inspire and guide their children to scale theheights of education successfully. This is manifested in themodern-day scenarios where children from poor backgrounds are able tocompete with their counterparts from fairly economically stablefamilies in education. Under the same academic environment, thesechildren are able to tackle challenges that may hinder theirperformance and emerge as equally successful, if not more successful,as their counterparts. Based on this, studies that address the impactof socioeconomic and literacy on children’s academic performancehave utilized complex techniques and tools to analyze therelationship between the variables. Subsequently, with certainconditions, one of the most significant predictors of academic andintellectual performance of children at certain ages includes theirparents’ socio-economic status (SES).

Inequally investigative studies, some scholars have posited thatparental SES has a direct and measurable impact on the children’sschool attendance and performance (Yamamoto &amp Holloway, 2010).Among the determining variables for are the children’s flexibilityto the system, their parents’ logistical, financial and moralsupport, as well as the different school schedules. Morespecifically, authors have paid attention to factors that mayinfluence the children’s performance, as an impact of theirparents’ parenting styles. Such factors include their parents’counsel, which determines the difference between the rates of deviantbehaviors among students hailing from the different socioeconomicbackgrounds, and the parents’ involvement in their children’s’academic activities, which determines the level of motivation foracademic success.

Alsosignificantly, there has been a foregoing discussion regarding anumber of factors that relate to the socioeconomic status of familiesand their influence on the home environment of students. There is analmost inseparable association between the private life of students,which is influenced by home dynamics, and their performance inschool. Accordingly, it is not deniable that there is a strikingcontrast between the high achieving students, and the low achievingones (Yamamoto &amp Holloway, 2010). While the school and academicenvironments may be similar, highly achieving students are observedto have fairly friendly and supporting backgrounds. Most of thesebackgrounds are intrinsically linked with parents of highsocioeconomic standards. At the same time, some low achievingstudents may be influenced by quite non-supporting backgrounds, whichin many cases, are characterized by parents with low socioeconomicand literacy levels. Based on this, it is imperative to appraise thesocioeconomic backgrounds of children with strikingly unique academicunderperformance to determine the linkage between their parents’influence and their educational discourse.

Someauthors have considered the issue of the health status of studentsand attempted to determine the influence of their parents’ SESstatus on their situations. For instance, Farooq et al. (2011)reported that there can be a traceable influence of parentalsocioeconomic background on their children’s school performance. Itcan also be observed that the health status of children from urbanand rural areas differ significantly. In many cases, the overallhealth status of urban school children is better than that of theirrural counterparts. Low nutritional status and health problemsgreatly hinder the children’s academic performance. Subsequently,educational researchers opine that children who are put under propernutrition and healthcare have the ability to assimilate well into theacademic environment, and take the optimal advantage of fullyutilizing educational resources than their disadvantagedcounterparts. Fundamentally, there is a determinable associationbetween parents’ socioeconomic status and their children’s’nutrition and health.

Anotherfactor of concern is the level of parents’ involvement in theirchildren’s’ academics. Illiterate parents do not have a goodcommand of English communication skills, such as reading, speakingand writing. This situation makes them to be less familiar with theeducational system, such as the protocols and modes of officialcommunication. As such, their ability to be involved in theirchildren’s’ academics is severely limited (Vera et al., 2012).Educationists find that these parents are unable to support variousaspects of their children’s’ learning, such as helping out withhomework and making career decisions (Chohan &amp Khan, 2010).Besides, such parents do not participate in school activities thathelp to boost their children’s academic performance, such as annualgeneral meetings with education shareholders. Regardless, someschools have devised ways of helping out such parents, especially bytargeting those from a poor socioeconomic background. Perhaps one ofthe most efficient methods is involving Non-governmentalorganizations to help their children keep up with those from fairlybetter socioeconomic backgrounds. However, there are some aspects ofacademic achievement support that such strategies cannot helpimprove, such as the illiterate parents’ comprehension of theeducation system, which guides them in making the right educationaldecisions for their children.

Socialtheorist hold the opinion that the source of sustenance is havingstrong grassroot foundations. In education, the grassroots foundationof children’s academic performance can be equated to their familybackgrounds. Education is also considered as the only root ofindividual and national development. However, due to the imbalance insocio-economic status of individuals, the performance of students isnot equal. The influence of socioeconomic status on education isharnessed in the balance of political and economic advantage, whichleads to a creation of distinctly dissimilar education performances(Budoki &amp Glodthorpe, 2012). For instance, communities with highsocioeconomic backgrounds are likely to have better resource due totheir political and economic influences. The opposite applies forcommunities with averagely low socioeconomic status. This is thereason why many schools in urban posh areas have good educationalresources, such as classes and infrastructure, which subsequentlytranslates to high performance. On the other hand, schools in ruralcommunities, and in poor urban centers, have schools with low leveleducation infrastructure, which facilitates low performance. Despitethe approvable effort made by the government to bring balance tothese schools, the impact of the society’s socioeconomic status andilliteracy significantly affects the children’s performance.

Theoretically,the sociocultural theory has implications for the educationalperformance of children who come from different socioeconomicbackgrounds (Devlin, 2013). Particularly, the profound implicationsfocus on the modes of teaching, schooling and the children’sgeneral education performance. It is upon the influence of thesociocultural theory that education policy makers have broadened theunderstanding of how the children learn, and how they comprehend thelessons. One key concept that is related with the socioculturaltheory, as far as education is concerned, is human development andsocial interaction. The sociocultural theory challenges individuals,within the social sphere, to widen their perspective of knowledge andthe risks of isolation. In other terms, the sociocultural theorypredicts the behavior of children at home and a school.

Thereis a significant difference in the manner in which children fromfamilies that have a high socioeconomic status behave, and the mannerin which their counterparts from poor socioeconomic status behave(Conger, Conger &amp Marin, 2010). Perhaps this can be explained byconfidence in individuals. Children from financially stable familiesare not frustrated by life as those from poor families, because theyrarely lack resources and finances to keep them going. Thefrustration experienced by children from poor families hinders theirconcentration at school, hence affecting their performance. They mayfail to record good social interaction with others, hence poorperformance in extra-curriculum activities that are associated withgood classwork performance. This way, the sociocultural theorypresents an explanation for the perceived different academicperformance among school children from different socioeconomicbackgrounds.

Inbroad terms, socioeconomic status is a wide construct that representsa given family’s access to key social and economic resources. Pastempirical investigations have established facts that create a directlink between a family’s social status, its economic capacity andrelations to access to resources (Crosnoe et al., 2010 Conger,Conger, &amp Martin, 2010). Accordingly, some key variables emerge,which can be applied to appraising the impact of socioeconomic statuson the children’s’ performance. These variables are the family’smonetary income, the parents’ occupations and their ability to getinvolved in their children’s academics. Other key measures thatemerge as influences of a family’s socioeconomic status are incometo poverty ratio, property ownership status and social positions.Also, an examination of a family’s socioeconomic status helps todetermine the distribution and utilization of key resources, in thiscase, those associated with education. Therefore, it is sound to holdan opinion that there is a high risk of educational underachievementfor children who come from families of low socioeconomic status. Someindicators of this risk are being disadvantaged in terms of access tokey resources, parental support in education and even poor schoolcompletion rates. The capacity of the parents to take their childrento well-equipped schools, which is a function of their economicdispositions, determines their children’s performance.

Itis against this background that the researcher sets to investigatethe possible impact of the independent variables, parentssocioeconomic and literacy levels, on the dependent variable, theirchildren’s academic performance.

Problem statement

Overthe past decade, a number of scholarly published articles have shownthat children of parents from the extreme ends of the socioeconomicsphere record significantly different levels of academic performances(Farooq et al., 2011 Okioga, 2013). Regardless, there are someclassical studies that demonstrate different observations as regardsto the school performance among the children. For instance, Okioga(2013) highlights the findings of a study that was published in anissue of Psychological Science, which showed that the behaviorof children from fairly well off socioeconomic background wasdetrimental to their studies. These children were observed to expresscharacteristics of disengagement than their less fortunate peers. Thedisengagement behavior involved actions such as playing around whilewhen they are supposed to be paying attention. On the other hand, thestudy showed that children from economically humble backgroundsdemonstrated high levels of concentration. Other behaviors studied inthese children, which are associated with good learning, were makingeye contact with the teacher and nodding as a sign of engagement inan interactive social environment. The contrasting behavior showsthat the children from economically sound backgrounds felt lessinclined to gain rapport with their peers, perhaps due to seeing thatthey need no assistance in their future. On the other hand, the studyfound that the children of poor parents seemed to be internallymotivated to perform well in education so that they can avoid thepoverty that their parents experienced. The findings of this studyare some of the indication of the complex nature of understanding theimpact of socioeconomic and illiteracy on educational performance ofchildren.

Whiledelivering on the promise of quality education, it is the wish ofevery government to have equal educational gain among all children.However, there is a constant gap in performance among students, whichturns out to be a source of concern for the key stakeholders.Parents, on their end, may feel that their children are not gettingthe fair attention they deserve, without understanding the source ofthe problem. On the other hand, the teachers and schooladministration may fail to prove the working of their teachingsystems, which can be a source of discomfiture for the entire system.The policy makers may be unable to constitute and implement the rightframeworks to improve the academic performance of the children, whichis part of their operations mandate. Therefore, it is clear that agap in performance among students is likely to cause confusion forall the stakeholders that are involved in education.

Moredetailed observations have been made regarding the way that childrenfrom extreme ends of the socio status sphere carry about theirstudies. For instance, Okioga (2013) observed that students from thepoor backgrounds are unable to pay their school fees in time. Thiscauses them to lose several hours, and even days, of classwork. Thisway, they get disadvantaged when it comes to exams. The parents frompoor socioeconomic backgrounds may not be able to fully support theirchildren’s school attendance. For instance, they may fail toprovide them with the right uniform and stationary. This affects thechildren’s confidence in class, and exposes them to inevitablefailure. While the government tries to improve the status of childrenfor providing subsidies for necessities such as school uniforms andbooks, the parents’ input is crucial for full realization of apositive learning mindset.

The level of academic performance is partly determined by parentalinvolvement in children’s studies (Carroll, 2013). Consequentially,parental involvement is a factor that is determined by the parents’literacy levels. Parents are supposed to be involved in theirchildren’s academics from an early stage of their development. Theinvolvement encompasses helping the children with their homework andguiding them through the syllabus. While this function is carried outby teachers, parents play a key role in helping their children tograsp the content with ease. However, it is evident that parents withlow literacy skills are not in a position to get involved ineducational matters of their children. This is because they areunable help the children by reading out instructions to them, as wellas lacking the ability to help them with technical subjects, such asscience and arithmetic. On the other hand, children whose parentshave a good educational background get the parental support that theyneed, hence finding it easy to cope with school work even when theyare at home. Also, literate parents are able to collaborate withtheir children’s teachers and help them to cover the syllabus withease.

Theliteracy levels of the parents can determine their parenting stylesand choices, which determines their children’s academicperformance. For instance, parents with a good educational backgroundare aware of their children’s academic schedules, and plan theirparenting to suit their children’s education. The problem withuneducated and illiterate parents is that they fail to plan for theirchildren on time. Carroll (2013) gave an example of poor maternalexpectations, which interferes with the children’s schooling.Besides, illiterate parents may fail to understand parentalpublications that are issued to help parents to make the rightdecisions for their children’s schooling. Parents’ inability toread, especially in the African continent, therefore acts as a majorobstacle for children’s achievement in education.

Rationale for study

Nigeriais one of the sub-Saharan African counties that have recorded asignificant differences in the academic performance between childrenfrom good socioeconomic background and those from a poorsocioeconomic background. The results of the Senior Secondary SchoolCertificate Examination (SSCE) show this difference. Besides therebeing a number of studies that address the impact of the parentssocioeconomic status and illiterate parents, there is a lack ofstudies that combine these two independent variables. Hence, therationale of this study is to first determine the way in which theparents’ socioeconomic background affects their children’seducation and academic performance. Concurrently, this study looksinto the impact of the parents’ level of literacy on theirchildren’s academic performance. From the background review of theproblem, it is quite clear that both these variables have their ownsignificant and measurable impacts on the children’s performance.However, the approach of this study is to determine the combinedimpact of these two influences.

Theresearch aims to establish the impact of socioeconomic status andliteracy within Kwara state in Nigeria The aim is to establish factsabout the area’s society’s socioeconomic status as compared toagainst other places in Nigeria. Accordingly, the researcher willattempt to determine how the standing socioeconomic status of theparents whose children school in Kwara State affects the academicperformance. This is against the logic that the financial ability ofthe parents is a central determinant of the manner in which theirchildren are able to access educational facilities and resources. Theresearcher will investigate the influence of the parents’ abilitiesto read and write, which determines their literacy levels, and theirchildren’s performance. By focusing on the schools in Kwara State,the researcher aims to come up with information that will expand theexisting knowledge that relates to educational matters within thejurisdiction.

Alsoimportantly, the study will look to determnine the interrelationsthat exists between the variables that are under investigation. Withthis knowledge, the researcher will uncover facts about Kwara State’seducation sector. This is aimed at informing policy formulators aboutthe impact of external factors on the delivery of education, usingchildren’s performance as the key indicator. By externalinfluences, the researcher refers to the parent’s position andcapacities to contribute to the children’s educational issues.Besides, while evaluating the impact of the parents’ socioeconomicstatus and literacy levels, the study will touch on other minorissues, such as the motivations, opportunities and challenges for thechildren’s educational endeavors.

Significance of thestudy

Thefindings of this study will be useful in understanding the factorsthat are responsible for the academy performance of children.Particularly, the findings will be useful in determining the keyfactors behind some children’s underperformance in Kwara estate.The Nigerian government has been implementing efforts to ensure thatit improves all students’ academic performance indiscriminately.However, the main challenge has been determining some of theobstacles to performance, and how they relate to various independentvariables. Therefore, by investigating the parent’s socioeconomicstatus and their literacy levels, and their impact on the education,the study will be useful for the government’ efforts to improvingthe children’s academic performance.

Thestudy will bring into focus some of the key areas where policyformulators have focused their efforts on to improve the quality ofeducation in Nigeria. Particularly, there has been a challenge inbringing a balance to the socioeconomic differences that influencethe performance of the children. In any society, there must be lowand high earners. However, this should not be a hindrance to theacademic achievement of the disadvantaged members of the society. Byunderstanding how the parents’ socioeconomic status affects theirchildren’s performance, the study will help the policy formulatorsto implement strategies to support all the students. This willemphasize the importance equality in education matters.

Thefindings of the study will help the relevant authorities to determinehow to support children who lack parental interventions in theireducation, due to the parents’ illiteracy. With the changing globaldynamics, illiteracy is a severe challenge to the development oflocal communities. By determining the exact impact of the parents’illiteracy o their children’s performance, the paper will be usefulin devising ways to help the parents cope with their children’sschooling and possible ways of helping them. For instance, if thepaper finds that illiteracy affects the parents’ understanding ofthe needs of the children, some of the possible solutions may behaving community members assist them with the problem. If the problemis due to the inability to read the letters from schools, theteachers may be asked to communicate with the parents in person tohelp them understand the protocols. In general terms, the paper willhold significance in helping parents who cannot read get the rightinformation to help them participate actively in their children’sstudies.

Methodologically,the study will help to improve the manner in which educationalresearches are conducted. There are several approaches to educationalstudies, such as action research, case study research, qualitativeand quantitative studies. Through the findings of this paper, thevalidity and reliability of the applied methodology will bedetermined. This will provide clues about improving the methods foreducational studies that are applied today. In equal measures, theresearcher’s approach technique will set an example for futurestudies that set to investigate education matters. With everyresearch, scholars find ways of improving other studies based ontechniques that have been implemented already. This has been theframework upon which educational investigations have been improvedover the past decades. The researcher’s choice of population andvariables will inform the technical aspects of future studies underthe same topic. Given the wide nature of education researches, thechoice of key factors such as the participants and their location iskey to determining the level of generalization of the findings.Fundamentally, the researcher looks to improve the methodologicalexecution of educational studies through this research.

Nature of the study

Themain objective of the paper is to explore the impact of socioeconomicstatus and the parents’ literacy level on the educationalperformance of their children. Accordingly, the researcher applies aquantitative study that will use surveys. The information will becollected from a specific set of schools, which the researcher willuse to observe and make conclusions about the relationship betweenthe independent variables and the dependent variables.

Thequantitative study approach is chosen because it enables theresearcher to determine the nature of the phenomenon statistically(Muijs, 2010). Given the nature of investigation, the researcherprofiles the target population and looks to determine the proportionof the audience that is impacted by the independent variables. Whiledesigning the study, the researcher considered issues that arerelated to the appropriate sample. These issues were thesocioeconomic status and illiteracy levels of the parents whosechildren were being investigated. The independent variables are thencorrelated against the test sample’s characteristics, which areacademic performance and educational achievement. Given the nature ofthe study, the technique has been custom designed so that theinvestigator answers specific set of questions and tests a specificset of hypothesis. For technical purposes, the study applies aquantitative approach with surveys.

Thereare many reasons why the researcher chooses surveys for this study.Most important, the researcher considered the number of schools thatwere to be investigated. There are several primary and secondaryschools in Kwara estate. This prompted the researcher to utilizesurveys as the research instrument of choice. In research, surveyshelp to collect enough data within a specific period of time,especially when the sample is big (Muijs, 2010). Surveys enable theresearcher to generalize the findings. Given the fact that theresearcher cannot collect information from every school, usingsurveys makes it possible to generalize the findings. The studypopulation for this study involves four schools from Kwara State.These are Ora-Aiyegbaju, Obbo-Ile, Eju-Ile and Ora-Aiyetoro. Theseschools are all located within the Ekiti local government of KwaraState. The findings obtained from these schools, regarding theparents’ socioeconomic status and literacy illiteracy, and theirimpact on their children’s academic performance, will be used toproject the situation for the rest of the schools that are notsampled.

Theproposed approach and technique will enable the researcher to meetthe research objectives effectively. Survey studies have beendiscussed to be effective quantitative methods in situations wherethe researcher has already set some pre-determined questions andhypothesis that apply to an entire group (Muijs, 2010). Because ofthe large number of participants, the method will make it easy forthe researcher to collect and organize the data objectively. Thiswill enable pinpoint explanation of the role and impact of thevariables, as well as explaining the key factors that influence theoutcome. Education matters are influenced by several forces. Besidesthe identified variables, there are other minor drivers of thesubject matter that may influence the outcomes almost independently.By correlating the data, the technique will enable the researcher,and other readers of the paper, to identify sub-themes that may cropout of the investigation. More specifically, the survey techniquewill enable the researcher to observe particular groups, such asparents who share the same illiteracy standards, and their impact onthe children’s performance.

Research questionsand hypothesis

Thebroad objective of the study is to determine the impact of parents’socioeconomic status and illiteracy levels on their children’seducational achievement. Academic performance, in this regard, isused as the measure of educational achievement. Given this widerobjective, the specific research questions that guide the paper are:-

  1. To what degree does low socio-economic status of parents correlate with student achievement?

  2. To what degree does parental illiteracy correlate with student achievement?

Theresearcher seeks to test a set of hypothesis that are related to thestudy’s independent and dependent variables. The hypotheses are asfollows:-

H1.There is a correlation between the low socioeconomic status of parentand students’ achievement.

H0.There is no correlation between the low socioeconomic status ofparents and student achievement.

H2.There is a correlation between parental illiteracy and students’achievement.

H0.There is no correlation between parental illiteracy andstudents’ achievement.

Definition of terms

Beloware the definitions of some of the key terms that are applied in thisstudy.

Socioeconomicstatus – “The social standing or class of an individual or group.Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities inaccess to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power andcontrol” (American Psychological Association, 2016, p.1).

Educationalachievement – Refers to a student’s success in meeting bothshort-terms and long-term goals in education (Center for the Study ofSocial Policy, n.d).

Academicachievement – For the purpose of this study, the term can be usedinterchangeably with educational achievement. It refers to completinghigh school and qualifying for college (Center for the Study ofSocial Policy, n.d).

Assumptions

Theresearcher relies on the honesty of the participants. Socioeconomicstatus of families is a topic that may elicit discomfort among manypeople in Nigeria. To this effect, some students, or parents, mayreport untruthfully to protect their image. Perhaps the most probablereason for this is fear of being looked down upon by people who maybe of a higher socioeconomic status. Moreover, the researcheranticipates that some students may report falsely regarding theliteracy levels of their parents. While such an occurrence may affectthe reliability and validity of the study, the researcher puts insome controls that may reduce the impact. These include conductingbrief follow up investigations, such as testing some of the parents’literacy skills, and following up with the local government’srecords about the area’s education statistics.

Theresearcher also assumes that the targeted schools will give apopulation sample that can be used for generalization. As earliernoted, it is impossible to take a survey that involves each and everystudent in the study area. Thus, the researcher assumes that theobserved characteristics apply for those students who are notsampled. This assumption is considered to be logical because theunderlying conditions for educational achievement, which aredetermined by the selected independent variables, are constant. Forinstance, the ability of parents from a given socioeconomic class tofinance their children’s schooling is constant across the board. The inability of an illiterate parent to be involved in theirchildren’s academics is the same for all parents who share the sameinability. This makes the assumption for this study logical andapplicable for the purpose of generalization.

Scope, limitationsand delimitations

Theresearcher targets to collect data that will inform the study’sobjectives only. There are two particular areas of interest. Thefirst one is the parents’ ability to read, especially the contentthat is associated with their children’s academics. The researcherconsiders the effect of illiteracy on the parents’ level ofinvolvement in their children’s schooling. Also importantly, theinvestigation of the parents’ illiteracy will be limited to theirEnglish language reading, speaking and writing skills. The researcherassumes that some of the parents may know how to write and some wordsor sentences in their local language. However, because the curriculumis delivered in English language, the researcher will be interestedin the parents’ English literacy skills. Secondly, the researcherwill consider the influence of the parents’ socioeconomic status ontheir children’s schooling. The scope will therefore be determiningthe capacity of the parents to provide for and support their childrenfinancially. Within the African society, some measures ofsocioeconomic status may be some traditional factors, such asownership of land and livestock. However, the researcher recognizesthat these have little or no impact on the children’s educationalachievement. As such, the measures of socioeconomic status that willbe of importance include the parent’s employment status, whichdetermines their income, and their financial status. These aredirectly linked to their ability to pay for their children’seducation, and to support them financially.

Thestudy is limited to investigating the impact of the independentvariables on the educational achievement of primary and secondaryschool students. The researcher does not look into the impact of thevariables on tertiary and college students. This is because the ageconsideration for the study limits the researcher to looking at theeducational achievement of primary school and high school students.Students in institutions of higher learning have the ability offinancing their studies, and do not need much parental involvement intheir studies. Regardless, the findings of the study may haveimplications for the academic achievement of students who are able tojoin institution of higher learning. This is because the level ofacademic performance from the primary and secondary schools is whatdetermines if these children go on join institutions of higherlearning. Based on this, the findings can be generalized to haveimplications on the students who have joined colleges and othertertiary institutions within the State.

Chapter summary

Thischapter has introduced the research issues, identifying and giving adetailed overview of the problem. Fundamentally, the research aims toinvestigate the impact of two independent variables, parent’ssocioeconomic status and illiteracy, on their children’seducational achievement. The researcher approaches the study with theassumption that the parent’s socioeconomic status and their levelof education does determine the way that they get involved in theirchildren’s education (Durand, 2011). Consequentially, parents whocome from a high socioeconomic class are likely to influence theirchildren’s education positively, as they are able to provide fortheir needs and support them financially through their education.However, parents from a low socioeconomic class are likely to faceseveral challenges that may hinder them from supporting theirchildren’s education.

Theresearcher will provide information that explains how illiteracyamong some parents affects the children’s educational performance.The approach is based on studies that show that illiterate parentsnegatively influence their children’s educational performance (Veraet al., 2012

Chohan&amp Khan, 2010). Specifically, illiterate parents are not able toparticipate actively in their children’s education matters, hencefailing to provide them with the necessary support that they needaway from school. The paper utilizes a quantitative approach usingsurveys because of the population involved, and nature of theknowledge that is sought. Also, using this approach, the researcherwill be able to make generalizations from the study. While the studyfocuses on selected schools from the Kwata State of Nigeria, themethodological execution makes it possible for generalization of thefindings across schools from other parts of the State, and the wholecountry in general. The study is useful for various uses, such asimproving education policy and devising strategies to helpunderperforming children to achieve better in their education.

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