- May 9, 2020
Themain purpose of the research work was to explicate and to understandexperiences and related views or opinions that the older peoplediagnosed with diabetes undergo in the process of self-managing asrecounted by insulin-dependent diabetes based in the rural area(George& Thomas, 2010). It follows the numerous past attempts by thequantitative research works which had failed to provide a change inthe outcomes, hence, the need for a considered new model of diabeteseducation that are geared towards the reflection of clientsinterpretations as informed by their experiences.
Theresearch question is what would be the rural based elderlies’experiences and feelings concerning their undertaking inself-management of diabetes?
Yes,the authors of the article made a deliberate attempt to describe theresearch design of their study. The researchers tried to explore astrategy that employed in exploring the problem of the unsuccessfulundertakings that were bound to help provide the results andpredictions as far as the management of diabetes among the elderlywere concerned. In this regard, the move towards the investigation ofpersonal attitudes and thoughts of the people living in the ruralareas and tackling insulin-dependent related diabetes was carried outin a manner that solicited interest from the patients themselves(George& Thomas, 2010). As so, their willingness to openly narrate tothe investigators and disclose their challenges attached to theconditions they faced is an exhibit of a carefully crafted strategy.The authors were especially concerned about the fact that there wereno diabetes treatment differences targeted for patients who were ofage 65 and above. Consequently, the researchers arranged forface-to-face interview sessions with the patients in their homes orresidences and at times of their convenience. Also, their decision tohave the relevant authorities, the appropriate research ethicscommittee, approve the exercise and further lead in an introductorymission created an atmosphere for the execution of a successfulstrategy(George& Thomas, 2010).
Thecanvassers managed to draw a sample from local agencies on agingbetween the months of January and May 2005, which consisted ofEnglish-speaking people of ages ranging from 65–85 years(George& Thomas, 2010). The participants must have indicated theirwillingness to talk at length about their diabetes and to allowresearchers to visit them in their respective homes. In a sample sizeof 10 (eight African Americans and two female white), the scientistswere able to conduct a reliable research as they closely monitoredthe variables as were presented in the prevailing scenarios. Thereliability was evidenced as they could establish that of the ten,five participants had been diagnosed over 25 years previously, andthe rest having received their diagnosis not more than 12 yearspreviously. The fact that everyone on the population sample had avisible sign of diabetes-related complications was also a pointerthat the right population was being involved. Furthermore, therevelation that all had more than one chronic condition besidesdiabetes demonstrated the negative toll the condition had for thepatients in addition to the fact that all but one was a widow.
Thesample was indeed enough for research designs that were chosen, asthe kind of a study that was being carried out is phenomenological innature that is usually identifiable by smaller samples sizes,considering its acceptable population that can range between six totwelve persons (George & Thomas, 2010).
Thedata collection procedure was in an unstructured mode that allowedthe participants free expression and informed the attainment of fullexperiences and the difficulties the elderly encounter while managingdiabetes. Comments and responses were followed up by prompts whichhelped the investigators to validate the narrations after thatapplied an assessment of the findings of self-management such asfrequency of testing blood glucose levels. The respondents were givenenough time to reveal as many experiences as they could hence theresearchers were in a position to capture as many narrations as theelderly could express (George & Thomas, 2010).
Accordingto George & Thomas (2010), the analysis of the data wassystematic with the scientists subjecting the collected audiotapedrecords and transcript verbatim to processes of re-reading andlistening with a view to ensuring both accuracy and obtaining betterinsights into the expressed descriptions. Data from selected from thetranscriptions was reviewed and read aloud by the experienced teamcomposed of members of interpretive, phenomenology andinterdisciplinary research group to determine any developingsubjects. Appropriate techniques were employed in the analysis ofphenomenological investigation data, benefitting from the group,which had some its members with vast experience spanning over tenyears participating in the exercise. The engagement of the group thatcomprised phenomenological research learners from doctoral programsand doctorally prepared university staff member ensured aprofessionalized procedure, incorporating the applicableinterpretation techniques of data analysis. The configurationsobserved across interview session were recognized and correlated toeach other until an ultimate thematic edifice is outlined, which isthen presented to the research team.
Asis the case with any study, the research work encountered a fewlimitations, which included the redundancy occasioned by therevelation of emerging issues. Also, the locational or environmentalconfinement made impossible to have an inclusive data samplepopulation as it excluded other demographics such as the Hispanics,Asian, and the Native Americans, who are known to have a higherprevalence of diabetes. Moreover, the findings of this research workcould only imply that the results would be transferable to other endswhere its applicability would be of the essence, as it was tenable toconduct the investigation all over and to everyone (George &Thomas, 20100).
Theauthors’ conclusion is largely premised on the research conducted,except their insertion of the nurses’ roles, which were not part ofthe study from the onset (George & Thomas, 2010). The matterintroduces a new player that acts to divert the readers’ attentionfrom the main subject, thereby occasioning confusion in both theinterpretations and the application of the results.
Theknowledge in the field is however advanced by the research as wasconducted, since its users are students of medicine, the nurses andthe patients are in a position to interact with the findings whichthey may apply appropriately as regard the professional guidelinesstated thereof (George & Thomas, 2010).
AsHunt, Sanderson & Ellison (2014) put it, the purpose of theresearch was meant to find if indeed the use of technologicalapplications based on Apple iPad gadgets that support diabetesself-management can enhance self-efficacy for self-management,increase participation in self-management behaviors and to improvecontrol of diabetes.
Theresearch question being: can technology assist people living withtype 2 diabetes with self-management?
Theauthors of the research work herewith stated gave a design of theirstudy(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014). In appreciation of the difficultiesthat the patients and the service providers are faced with in themanagement of diabetes, the investigators embarked on a mission toestablish how technology can be of assist in processing theunderlying complexities of self-management strategy by availingeducational or instructional and visual feedback on relatedbehaviors. In this regard, the researchers had participants recruitedfrom the employee health collection of diabetes and nutrition from alocal medical center in an urban area in Southeast of USA.Representatives from the employee health program posted studyinformational flyers at the center, with all the employees enrolledgetting an e-mail describing the study and contacts of the scientistsfrom their leaders. Consequently, the interested people were referredto the coordinator who later who established if the likelyparticipants met the required criteria.
Thesample size comprised of 14 participants of whom 10 were female and 4were male. Of the 14, 11 were if the age of 50 years and above while3 of them were below 50 years of age. Notably, 13 of all theparticipants had been diagnosed with T2DM less than 10 years ago. Thestudy also had a skewed selection of the American demographics asmajority involved were Caucasians, giving an imbalanced combination(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014).
No,the sample size was not adequate for the study as the exercisefurther explicated the need for a larger and a more varied sample wasneeded for additional and satisfactory evaluation.
Thesteps towards the data collection were first made possible when theteam sought to review and received approval from the institutionalboards based at the University, which concerns itself with the studyand the participating hospital fraternity. Following the successfulcompletion of the preliminaries, the partakers were randomly assignedto either the intervention (iPad), the primary investigatordemonstrated to the participants how to log in their self-managementbehaviors, or control (Journal) group, upon which the applicants wereto record their activities(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014). The order of recording was providedtogether with investigators contact, just in case one would requirefurther clarification on an issue about the procedure. After a while,swapping was carried out and monitored for 3 three months when thefinal assessment was done.
Descriptivestatisticswere engaged in the analysis of the demographic data. The examinationof before-test and after-test measurements of self-efficacy anddiabetes self-management behaviors is conducted by use of a variedtypical analysis of variance with the group (monitoring method) asthe hybrid factor and self-effectiveness and diabetes self-managementconducts as the repeated factors. To determine changes inself-management behaviors over time, repeated measures analysis wasalso used(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014).
Thesample size was small. Also, the effectiveness of the interventionmay have been limited by the fact that respondents were found to beof good glycemic control and high self-efficacy scores at baseline.Further, time constraints may have led the respondents to notaccurately log their details. Also, the complexity of interfacingwith iPad was noted by money especially when the respondents were torecord the food entry section(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014).
Indeed,the authors’ conclusion is a true representation of the researchthey conducted. In essence, people living with diabetes are requiredto arm themselves with the understanding of the multifaceted inputsneeded to self-manage the condition(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014). As so, technological advances canplay in the integral role if embraced by the healthcare providers todispense with educative instructions. Besides, research work ismarked as an important intermediary in the search for more solutions.
Knowledgeis advanced in the health field when all the stakeholders in thehealth matters such as the students, the researchers, the patients,and the caregivers embrace practical mechanisms and appropriatelydesigned to equip and manage the condition of people living withdiabetes(Hunt,Sanderson & Ellison, 2014).
George,S. R., & Thomas, S. P. (2010). Lived experience of diabetes amongolder, rural
people.Journal of advanced nursing, 66(5), 1092-1100.
Hunt,C. W., Sanderson, B. K., & Ellison, K. J. (2014). Support fordiabetes using
technology:a pilot study to improve self-management. Medsurg Nursing, 23(4),231.