- April 25, 2020
Exploring Personality Theories
TheFive Factor Model of Personality
TheFive Factor Model of Personality theory proposes that people judgeothers basing on the five main personality traits(Lönnqvist, Itkonen, Verkasalo and Poutvaara, 2014).In the openness to culture dimension, I am quite imaginative and workseamlessly with people of other ethnic groupings and culture. Iappreciate diversity as a way of furthering learning opportunitiesand growth. People are very important in helping one to realize fullpotential. Also, for conscientiousness, I am not very keen when itcomes to setting goals. Whenever I am experiencing stress I tend tobe anxious, but in a relaxed atmosphere I have learnt to remain calmand graceful to avoid undue pressure. To realize my full potential, Ihope to create opportunities that allow personal growth anddevelopment by working with others. Asfor extraversion, I have a preference to interactive and socialsituations. The attributes that relates to sociability andgregariousness are inherent in me. Thisstems from the fact that I appreciate that clothes help me to expressmy innermost feelings and thoughts. As such, I always choose specificclothes to assert myself. Extraverts should work in environment wheretheir opinions are valued and can be natured by working with others.On Agreeableness,Trust, modest are important values. Working well with others has notonly helpedme overcome the innate responses to anxiety but has established trustwhere issues of integrity apply.Lastly about the neuroticism dimension of the theory, I hardlyexperience mood swings and anxiety since I am resilient when it comesto controlling my emotions. However, a few occasions happen when Iend up failing in my plans. I become moody and anxious. I am alsofond of rash decisions.
Personalitytraits are largely developed in a mutual way between the interactionof genes and the environment(Tabery, 2014).For example a family with a disrupted family functioningcharacteristic is more prone to having children with antisocialbehaviors. Clearly, the factors at play result from the parents genesthat expose the children to the environmental risks that directly orindirectly affect their growth. The interaction between theenvironment and genetic makeup would influence development ofpsychological trait while the environment will develop that trait.This means that the qualities that are innate in the parentsgenerally influence the environment in which the children develop andlearn. The same will go for adults learning from one another thereare aspects of behaviors that are copied yet originate from theinnate disposition of another person. AlbertBandura’s Social Learning Theory
Thesocial learning theory has great influence on the development ofpro-social and deviant behaviors(Rutherford, 2014).The theory insists on the role of modeling individuals who learn fromobserving others. People learn rapidly in social situations byobserving how other behaves. They scaffold from one stage to reachzone of proximal development(Rutherford, 2014).This is a situation when one becomes independent of others afterlearning. I have grown up to observe how others behave in certaincircumstances and adapted those norms seamlessly. For instance,etiquette is a general expectation from my community that I neitherconstructed nor brought with me yet I adhere to it. Also, I have beensocialized in a manner that my thought processes are largelyinfluence by what I perceived to be the right thing to do in varioussituations. Yet all this is pre-constructed and has all to do withthe social expectations placed on me by my role models that I work toplease.
Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs
Maslow’shierarch of needs state that people will work to achieve ultimatesatisfaction if their performance will fulfill the higher needs.According to the theorist, there are five categories on needsarranged in a hierarchical manner, namely physiological needs,security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization(Lutz, 2014). Maslow added that if physiological needs are notfulfilled people will devote their resources and capabilitiestowards achieving the next level and cannot be compensated by socialinteraction and esteem fulfillment. Currently, I am experiencingsecurity needs because I feel the need to visit a doctor more oftenas well as prioritizing my interactions with peers and role modelsand god-fathers. In future, I hope to reach the pinnacle of humanexistence at actualization stage by achieving fame and recognitionfor exemplary performances. Even at this level, there will be still adesire to grow even better.
FreudianTheory of Personality Structure
Freudpsychodynamic theory posits that a human being is born with death andlife instincts (De Sousa, 2011). While death instincts includetendencies that lead to aggression, self-destruction and cruelty,life instincts include erotic indicts and self-preservation.Additionally, the theory supports the proposal that human beings aredriven by libido an inborn energy that motivates us to survive (DeSousa, 2011). To Freud, conscious, preconscious and unconscious mindsare very important in human existence. Whereas the conscious mind isabout what we are aware of, the unconscious mind is inaccessible anddescribe the locking away of sexual fantasies, shameful acts, selfishneeds or painful experiences that influence the present behaviors. To him, personality has aspects relating to the Id, which is inbornand desires immediate satisfaction, the Ego, which is the voice ofreason and the superego which is a self-observation mechanism (Ahmed,2012). My Id, Ego and Superego play an important role is in myfuture by giving me the ability to adapt changes in a way that suitesme. When conditions are harsh, I am well able to develop defensemechanisms that protect me from undue anxiety, stress and depression.Achievement and success in life is derived from the pleasure seekinginstinct of the ego from the Id that is curbed by the superego.
Theunconscious mind is very important in everyday life and behaviorbecause it is the motivation behind how people feel, behave and makejudgments. This according to Freud is dependable on the pastexperiences. The main importance relates to the automatic andimplicit processing of information. The unconscious mind influencebehavior and judgment and can be used to understand intensions andthe motivations towards certain behaviors.
Ahmed,S., (2012) Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Oedipus complex: Acritical study with reference to D. H., Lawrence’s “Sons andLovers”, Ideal College, Sylhet, Bangladesh, Internaljournal of English and literature 3(3),pp. 60-70.
DeSousa, A., (2011) Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A ConceptualAnalysis, MensSana Monogr., vol.9 (1): pp. 210–217
Lutz,K. (2014). Maslow’s Hierachy of needs in an Inclusive ClassroomRetrieved fromhttp://psed516diversityproject.wikispaces.com/Maslow`s+Hierarchy+of+Needs+in+a n+Inclusion+Classroom-+By+Kaitlin+Lut
Lönnqvist, J.,Itkonen, J. V., Verkasalo, M., & Poutvaara, P.(2014). The Five-Factor Model of personality and Degree andTransitivity of Facebook social networks. Journalof Research in Personality, 50,98-101. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.03.009
Rutherford, S.(2014). CollaborativeLearning: Theory, Strategies, and Educational Benefits.
Tabery, J.(2014). BeyondVersus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature andNurture.