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Factors Affecting Women Police Role in Leadership and Decision Making

FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN POLICE ROLE IN LEADERSHIP 1

Factors Affecting Women Police Role inLeadership and Decision Making

Problem Statement

There are different roles and duties in thepolice service. Every Police officer is made aware of theirresponsibilities and functions, both within the police unit andwithout, in the society. In spite of having various hindrances whichthey experience in their line of duty, they are required to operateeffectively in the complex social, political and organizationalenvironment. In most parts of the world, as a result of thesechallenges, women police have faced many challenges [ CITATION Bla12 l 1033 ].Naturally, females are thought to beinferior in comparison to their male counterparts. Apart from thebiological variations which create a difference between these twogenders, there are psycho-social facets in the society which alsolead to the existence of behavioral boundaries. These limitations areconsidered suitable for each of the two genders regarding thesocietal rules and regulations [ CITATION Mor13 l 1033 ].This is visible in the manner in whichmen and women are treated and raised in the family set up. Also, thekind of labels they receive once in the society is dependent on theirgender. To this effect, it is understood that women have been deniedthe opportunity of access to both vital and utilitarian roles. Theseroles are, on the other hand, made available to their malecounterparts.

Some of the positions which have beendesignated for men are administrative responsibilities, disposal ofproperty roles, leadership roles in the societal affairs includingreligion and governance. Also, the right of choice when it comes tothe entry of women into a conjugal union has been denied to them.While it has been established that such issues are exist in thesociety, their prevalence and cultural values and system togetherwith their norms which are understood to perpetuate them have notbeen adequately explained [ CITATION Wex15 l 1033 ].

Research Objectives

The central objective of the study will be tofind out the status of women police`s involvement in the leadershipand decision-making roles in various institutions. This will alsoinclude factors that are understood to affect their roles inleadership and decision making. The specific goal will be todetermine the current status of women police in leadership anddecision making in the society. Also, the study will seek to identifysome of the significant barriers and factors which affect womenpolice roles in policing. The study will also seek to identify keytrends in women’s participation in public administration.

Research Questions

  1. What is the status of women police involvement in leadership and in decision making?

  2. What are the factors affecting the roles of police women in leadership and decision making?

  3. In the contemporary society, what are the roles of police women?

  4. What are the barriers and factors that affect women police roles in policing?

  5. What are key trends in women’s participation in public administration?

Research hypothesis

  1. Women are less involved in leadership and decision making than their male counterparts.

  2. There are a few factors affecting the roles of women police in leadership and decision making.

  3. Extremely few barriers exist that hinder women police roles in policing

  4. The key trends in women’s participation in public administration are impressive.

Literature Review

Women Police and Leadership

In most parts of the world, there has been thebelief that women are week, submissive, and also tolerant of tediouswork and abuse in which culture has been used as a reason. Due todramatic and fast growing economies in the Middle East, change inmany sectors is visible. The most contributing factor to this is anincrease in educational achievements across all genders. Mostremarkable of them is the ability of women to work in various sectorswhich previously were male dominated. However, women police role inthe Arab world remains to be in question. This is because thedramatic societal and cultural aspects have created a complex dynamicsociety in which gender roles are still pursued.

On the other hand, developing countries areexamples of a society in which women, in general, have been kept inan extremely subordinate position. Just like in many parts of theworld, in these countries, women are understood to hold thelow-status responsibilities in the society [ CITATION Har15 l 1033 ].In the developing countries, culture isunderstood to be the primary cause of the low status which has beenattached to the girl child and women [ CITATION Tod12 l 1033 ].Due to this, ladies have lost their fairchance of access to education, training, and the employment chances.They have also been denied the opportunities to get involved inpolicy regulations which are part of the activities which involve alot of decision making. Although women play very vital roles byhandling all the communal activities, they fail to enjoy the fruitsof their labor since they have been exposed to political, economic,societal, and also cultural marginalization. Many women have playedimportant roles politically, and leadership wise but only a few arefound in the existing literature. Teshome 2012, has, moreover, addedthrough his work that according to the developing world history,women made essential contributions through both out and indooractivities. This includes even in terrible ones, for instance, war [ CITATION Par11 l 1033 ].

PsychologicalDifferences between Men and Women

Looking at the works of Carol Gilligan, we findthat she focused mainly on women`s mental development as the moralbeing. Men and women are two different beings in the sense that theyhave different moral development and due to this, Gilligan statesthat the female ethics is mainly based on caring, and it is furtherlinked to the understanding of responsibility and relations whichshould be applied in policing. On another perspective, she goes onand states that the male ethics are mainly fixed on justice, and itis highly connected to the understanding of rights and rules,something which has given men the upper hand. This has been found tobe critical factors when we look at some of the factors which haveled to discrimination when it comes to police recruitment in manyparts of the world [ CITATION Gil12 l 1033 ].

Gender Ideologies and Stereotypes

The current world and society have taken themale social development as a norm. With this, the power of patriarchyhas been deeply rooted in aspects of the society. The point topatriarchy states that men should be dominant over their femalecounterparts in all facets [ CITATION Bar14 l 1033 ].This, therefore, denies women the chanceto be involved in leadership. If men must have dominion over women,never will a woman be on the same level with any man. In many partsof the world, the radical feminists have had the belief that thereexists a natural division between both genders. Due to this, it isbelieved that innate sexual characteristics exist [ CITATION Man14 l 1033 ].

The existence of stereotypes has led to thebelief that women are weaker than men. This is a suggestion thatwomen will always need protection from their men. It has further beenstated that femininity has frequently been associated with nurturing,caring non-violence. In his work Gilligan further found that theissues which require a lot of responsibility, independent thinking,and clear decision making had been deemed to be desirable andsuitable for men and considered at the same time undesirable towomen. This has, therefore, been used in allocating jobs to womenpolice when they are in the line of duty [ CITATION Gil12 l 1033 ].

Academic challenge

Inmany parts of the world, ladies, in general, have been deprived theopportunity to acquire education. In certain parts, this is part ofthe culture of the people who live in those areas and breaking thiswould be a taboo and those breaking it would be subject to theconsequences which are associated with the same. Education is vitalsince it acts as an eye opener, and it is only through this that ourwomen will be equipped with sufficient skills on how to perform theirduties efficiently. Failure to educate ladies will lead to a low rateof economic growth as well since education has a linear and indirectimpact on the economic development of any country. To cope up withthis problem and increase the number of women who act as policewomen,the government, and other stakeholders should come up withscholarship programs which will help in initiating theirdecision-making ability.

Research Design and Methodology

Type of Research

This study will make use of descriptive study.This will be effective since it is a fact finding and the researchwill need to have the adequate and accurate interpretation of theresults. With this, it will be easy to describe what the reality is.The descriptive study can describe effectively what there is within asituation, such as the current practices, conditions and other areasof the research. Since the issue in context is all about assessingfactors which are affecting women police involvement in leadershipand decision making in the society, the researcher will assume thatdescriptive research will be the method of choice (Mann, 2014).

Data Source

To achieve the aims of the research, primaryand secondary data will be utilized. The primary data sources begathered from a sample who will be chosen through sampling. Moreover,on the secondary sources, the primary sources which will be used forthe secondary data will be the annual women police affair officereport, the annual women issue office report, different books in theareas of sociology, management and leadership, participation of womenpolice in administration and other dockets, internet and othersources from Town administration Affair office [ CITATION Bry16 l 1033 ].

Population and Sample Size

On the study population, studies have it thatthis is an aggregation of elements from which the sample size will bechosen. The population for our case will consist of approximately 360permanently employed persons and more so the policing fraternity. Inassessing the factors which affect the women police in playing theirroles and decision making in the society, out of the total 360 (230will be women while 130 will be males) workers who are currentlyworking in public institutions, some of them will be governmentinstitutions, others from women affair office, others from themayor`s office and others from the police fraternity will be selectedas sample respondents. This will be so because in researchactivities, as the sample size increases, the reliability of theresearch also increases. This can hence be used in showing the truecondition of the factors which hinder women police from performingtheir leadership roles as well as decision making in the society.

Method of Data Collection

Survey is the method which will be used incollecting data from the respondents with the data collection toolbeing questionnaire and interview. The survey will contain both theclosed and open-ended formats. The questionnaires were used becausethey help in gathering data with the minimum cost and faster ascompared to any other tool. On the other hand, the interview will beselected because this will help in getting some facts which aresimilar to the study. This include from the top official who are wellaware of some of the challenges women in the broad face when playingtheir leadership roles and making decisions.

Method of Data Analysis

This research as previously stated is ofdescriptive type. Therefore, for the actualization and achievement ofthe survey, the data which will be collected from various sourceswill be prepared for later presentation on the research objectives.This will also be done in the quantitative and qualitativeperspective. This will use the descriptive statistical tools such asgraphs and charts for the data collected through the questionnaires.Nevertheless, the results will be used for the data which will begathered through the interviews and the observation.

Methodological challenge

Sincethis study will be majorly descriptive, the emergence of big data isan aspect which is seen as a methodological challenge for the studyin context. Conducting women police performance based reviews andinterviews on the top officials were testing since the officialsopted to neglect some of the interview questions. This was in thedata collection phase. Also, the aspect of honesty and openness isanother challenge which was faced in the data collection phase. Tosum up this, these problems are not intractable since if they arepredicted early in advance and proper steps are taken and followed,they can be avoided or minimized hence reducing their effects.

Factorsthat hinder women from participating in leadership and decisionmaking in police force

Leadership can be termed as both a research field and practical skillthat comprises the capability of a person or an institution to leador guide other persons or the entire institution. In the UnitedStates, for instance, the leadership is seen as the process ofsocietal influence where the person in charge is entitled to enlistthe help and be supportive to others with the purpose of attainmentof a common goal while within the context of European society isdefined as the ability of a leader not only be moved by thecommunitarian objectives but also the search of individual power.Studies on leadership have generated various theories that revolvearound traits, behavior, power and vision among others (Knippenberg &ampHogg, 2003). Decision-making is defined as the cognitive process thatleads to the choosing of a belief among other possibilities. Theprocess of decision making results to a final decision that has quitea significant impact on other individuals and the entire departmentfor instance, the police force (Vaughn, Eerkens, &amp Kantner,2010).

In most patriarchic societies, women are viewed as the inferiorspecies, and they are denied the certain roles in the societyincluding the police department that are only available for men.Roles like administration and leadership positions in the policeaffairs and governance and disposal of properties are exclusivelyassigned to the male counterparts. We very well comprehend that suchforms of discriminations are there in our societies, what we do notunderstand is their prevalence and the cultural value systems and thenorm that carry on is not adequately understood (Vaughn, Eerkens, &ampKantner, 2010). The women’s decision to take part or not take partin leadership and decision-making process is that it pertains thematters of a police force which are not solely based on theindividual interests of the women, but it is strongly embedded in thenorms and the roles that are based on the society or culture. Thesefactors greatly hinder women to take major leadership roles in thepolice because the society deems that their interests or safety willnot be fully guaranteed as opposed to men taking similar positions(Knippenberg &amp Hogg, 2003).

Literacy is another factor that will prevent women to take activeroles in the police task force. However, the questions that emergefollowing targeting women for their literacy levels are as the resultof culture and politics. The issue of gender equality in the literacyframework is regarded as the imposition from the internationalagencies and not giving respect to the women and their families(Knippenberg &amp Hogg, 2003). Research shows that society does notbelieve in the equality of rights between men and women which impactson the literacy rates and the general empowerment of the women. Ourcultures see women as the subordinates to the men this can lead tothe perpetuation of the already gender inequalities that are existingin our societies. Everyday traditions, myths and symbolism are themajor reasons that prevent women from participating in active rolesin community and the police departments at large (Vaughn, Eerkens, &ampKantner, 2010).

The general formation of the women today has been affected by theconventional roles that they take in our communities giving the men atotal control over all matters that are associated with the public.Women are confined to the domestic roles and consequently theirmobility are quite limited as well as the accessibility of theinformation is very low which means that their capability to takepart in the analysis and decision making is narrowed. The governmentand communities give the women minimal spaces for their voices to beheard (Vaughn, Eerkens, &amp Kantner, 2010). Historically theabsence of women in public domain is attributable to the lack ofcapability and education. There are perceptions and attitudes thatexist in our societies that see we mean should not be giveneducation, and such perceptions make women thrive in poverty anddependent on the men, and they cannot rise to take sensitivepositions in police departments and public. For us to see more womenin the leadership and decision processes of the police we need tocome up with appropriate policies that will empower women to rise tothe public domain (Knippenberg &amp Hogg, 2003).

Women are regarded as weak and submissive, and the culture has usedis the major reasons to keep women away from the public. However, thesituation is changing so fast. The rapidly growing economies aregiving women opportunities to go to schools and get equal informationas to that of men. Such contemporary changes have seen women takeroles in public that were previously kept for men. Some regions arestill lagging behind to empower their women, for example in Arabworld women are considered to be inferior due to their stern socialand cultural facets that insist the conventional gender roles bepursued (Vaughn, Eerkens, &amp Kantner, 2010). While in thedeveloping nations for example in Africa women have remained ininferior positions. The culture in these nations is the main cause ofwomen to be in low rank. Women and girls do not access to qualityeducation which is easily available to willing men. The young girlsare forced into early and premature marriages. Such factors deny themto participate in public policies that entail a lot of decisionmaking (Knippenberg &amp Hogg, 2003).

There is psychological that hinders women to take part in publicdomain especially in politics. This factor implants various motivesin the minds of women that they cannot participate in the affairs ofpolitics entirely. For example, married woman with children will beinsulted even by her fellow women because the perception here is thatshe should be at home taking care of the kids and the husband. If sheattends the political events especially at night, a typical husbandwill think that her wife is having an extra-marital affair since shereturns home very late. This psychological factor hinders women toactively participate in politics or other public policies. This issueis commonly found in African and other male dominant states where themost empowered gender is men (Vaughn, Eerkens, &amp Kantner, 2010).

In conclusion, our societies are to blame for identifying the rolesof men and that of women. Both genders are endued with leadershipqualities, and the society requires both their inputs for a betterplace to live. There is a saying that goes by “what a man can doeven a woman can do better.” Therefore, a society that relies onlyon one gender will remain behind in the current century. It is veryimperative that the government and our societies to create morespaces to engage women in the leadership and decision-making roles.The biggest challenge that remains is the attitude of men inworkplaces, and they should understand that any meaningfulprogression of a state the inputs of both men and women are vital.

References

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Blau, F. D. (2012). National Bureau of Economic Research. Gender Differences in Pay, 12-99.

Bryman, A. a. (2016). Leadership Quarterly. The importance of context: Qualitative research and the study of leadership, 153-371.

Gilligan, C. (2012). In A Different Voice. London: Harvard University Press.

Haregewoin C, E. M. (2015). Towards Gender equality in Ethiopia. A Profile of Gender Relations. Addisababa: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

Mann, D. (2014). Understanding Society: A Survey of Modern Social Theory, 2nd ed. Don Mills, Ont.: Liverpool University Press.

Morash, M. a. (2013). Justice Quarterly. Gender, Workplace Problems, and Stress in Policing, 51-140.

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Knippenberg, D. and Hogg, M. (2003). Leadership and power. London: SAGE.

Vaughn, K., Eerkens, J. and Kantner, J. (2010). The evolution of leadership. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press.

Todak, N. E. (2012). Prospective Female Officer Perceptions of Policing. Diss: Bowling Green State University.

Wexler, J. G. (2015). Journal of Police Science and Administration. Sources of Stress Among Women Police Officers, 23-53.