- May 16, 2020
The increased crime rate has led the department of security to applydifferent approaches to addressing the issue. The media throughpopular crime dramas reveal some ways such as the use of forensicanthropology to solve the criminal activities. A forensicanthropologist is mainly used in death investigations as they havethe skills and knowledge that they apply in understanding the humanbody. They can also provide an expertise opinion to the law officerswho are handling the case and guide them in the appropriate directionin which the investigation should follow to obtain an appropriateoutcome. The paper seeks to research on facial recognition and DNAsampling to explain what they are used for, their importance anddevelopment along with how forensic anthropology had changed themethods of solving crimes.
Usesof Facial Recognition and DNA Sampling
Facial recognition and DNA sampling are considered as valuable toolsof law enforcement. Forensic anthropologists tend to use the two tofulfill different purposes. For instance, facial recognition can beused to provide the identification of a victim when other ways suchas the fingerprints have proved impracticable or are unavailable. Attimes, the investigator may have a rough idea of who the individualis and can thus use the facial recognition to conduct a one-to-onecomparison to determine if the person in question is the same basedon the similar and different features they portray (Dirkmaat, 2012).Facial recognition can also be used in forensic anthropology to aspart of a verification process whereby the researcher combines twobiometric techniques. The approach is highly valuable as it reducesthe work overload while increasing the efficiency and accuracy of theinvestigation process.
Just like facial recognition, DNA sampling can also be used to obtainthe identification of a victim. The forensic anthropologists applytheir human anatomy and osteology knowledge to determine the age,sex, ancestry and status of the person at the time of death. They canalso use the biological profile as it has the potential of providingtheir identity as well. DNA sampling can also be used to determinethe cause of the death of an individual (Bertino & Bertino,2012). They conduct the skeletal analysis since the body can be badlydecomposed or missing some parts. The procedure is complicated as theenvironmental conditions can lead one to make mistakes. Hence,forensic anthropologists can participate in the evidence collectionas they have better expertise in locating and extracting humanremains.
Facial recognition and DNA sampling are essential in solving a crimebecause they provide the victim with the last chance of acquiringjustice. Unlike other security techniques that are aimed atprotecting the people, it must be understood that forensicanthropology can only be applied where an incident has alreadyoccurred (Dirkmaat, 2012). Hence, since the victim is dead, thefacial recognition provides identity while the DNA samplingtechniques explain the cause of death and if anyone is responsible.
The two methods used by forensic anthropologists have developed overthe years. In the past, automated facial recognition involvedmeasuring of various facial feature locations such as the eyescorners and the hair line. However, they proved inefficient since thefaces are animated by nature and the effect of the viewingorientation. The techniques advanced to the use of considerationimages with standard features regarding the lighting, image quality,and the expression. Currently, the forensic anthropologists can usehigh-resolution frontal images to compare their victims. The DNAsampling techniques have also been advancing as well. The researcherknows the approach to apply in solving a case depending on thecondition of the body of the person. Originally, they would obtainDNA samples from relatives that they would use to compare to thereference one (Bertino & Bertino, 2012). In other circumstances,the family may be absent, the researchers may have to obtain a betterapproach. The use of modern equipment capable of performing CT scansand high-powered microscopes that support chemical analysis enablethe forensic anthropologists to acquire an identity, age, and theperson’s diet.
How Anthropology hashelped change the way we solve crimes.
In the past, many murder cases remained unsolved because of lack ofthe expertise needed. Since forensic anthropology was discovered, thecrimes department has experienced significant change as most of thecases are now being solved. One of the ways Anthropology has changedthe methods of unraveling crime is that it does not focus on onesource of information, but rather it depends on multiple factors thatsurrounded the victim’s life when they were both living and aftertheir death (Buyers, 2015). In this way, they get to understand humanbehavior and even determine their identity as well as what might havecaused their death. Another approach that Anthropology uses is theuse of the laboratory. Forensic anthropologists use equipment andconduct many experiments that lead them to obtain accurate resultsthat are based on facts observed from the victim’s specimens. Forinstance, DNA sampling requires the use of high-powered microscopesthat enable the scientists to obtain the actual identity of a person.Their nature of work has led to the development of forensicfacilities that contain the necessary equipment needed for solvingcrime (Buyers, 2015).
In conclusion, facial recognition and DNA sampling are useful inidentifying victims and determining their cause of death. They arealso significant as they allow an individual to obtain justice.Therefore, forensic anthropology has made an essential contributionin crime solutions.
Bertino, A. J., & Bertino, P. N. (2012). Forensic Science:Fundamentals & Investigations. Mason, OH: South-WesternCengage Learning.
Buyers, S. N. (2015). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology.Routledge
Dirkmaat, D. (2012). A Companion to Forensic Anthropology.Somerset: Wiley.