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GOAL SETTING THEORY

Goal Setting Theory 2

GOALSETTING THEORY

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GoalSetting Theory

Inthe management of any organization, goal setting is one of thefundamental tools in ensuring the objectives of the firm are met. Thestrategic managers are usually tasked with the role of theformulation of the overall strategic goals of the firm. In thiscontext, it is important to understand some of the vital steps thatone can use to meet these desired aims and objectives of theenterprise. Goals are those levels of performance accuracy andproficiency that a company as whole is determined to achieve within agiven timeframe (Cummings,and Worley, 2014, p.172).The inception of the goal setting theory substantiates the fact thatindividuals are usually highly motivated when three aspects areattained. They are motivated when they achieve a high level ofself-efficacy regarding the achievement of goals, when they have setgoals which are challenging and precise and when they develop astrong commitment to such goals (Shields,Brown, Kaine, Dolle-Samuel, North-Samardzic, McLean, Johns, Robinson,O`Leary, and Plimmer, 2015, p.23).The fundamental basis for this theory is the fact that as employeesgain knowledge of what is expected of them, their level of commitmenttends to increase and hence creating an advent of efficiencymanagement of employees and attainment of desired goals. This paperinvestigates the context of goal setting theory within WoolworthCompany based in Australia. In the first instance, the research takesa look at the goal setting theory in the perspective of SMARTacronyms which stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realisticand lastly Time-based. Additionally, the method is used to unveil thedesigning of a job position of a human resource specialist-recruitment in Woolworth. The research also analyzes some of the waysin which the pertinent drawbacks linked to the process of goalsetting could be overcome.

Indesigning the job role and description of a human resourcespecialist, the significance and specificity of the role areimperative. For Woolworth company, the HR specialist willspecifically deal with the recruitment section. This position goes along way in ensuring that proper recruitment structure is well set.The setting is based on the labor requirements of the company at agiven time limit. Since Woolworth is a multi-faceted organization,the HR specialist is expected to be stipulated for a particularlocation or region. This specialization regarding location is verycritical as it helps in the creation of boundaries within which theemployee is expected to operate (Armstrong,and Taylor, 2014, p.112).The specific tasks that the specialist would do are to design aproper recruitment structure with keen attention to the needs of thefirm. Additionally, the Specialist will be charged with theresponsibility of monitoring the whole hiring process. In thiscontext, they will be creating the spot-checks and balances withinthe organization that will ensure that the recruitment process isdone with high level of efficiency. The efficiency is based on thefact that the specialist will outline these tasks and provideguidance on the best way to implement them

Onaccount of measurement, the professional`s performance will bemeasured using various key performance indices (KPI) within theorganization. Since Woolworth is dealing with numerous clotheslinesand retail business, the HR specialist`s performance will be based onthe employment KPIs. Since the expert is deemed to be managing theworkforce, the first measurement to be done would be on account ofabsenteeism rate. This KPI helps in understanding the laborproductivity of those who have been recruited. The calculation isdone dividing the number of workdays which lost with the number ofworkdays that are available for the company. Additionally, there isthe calculation of the number of full-time employees that helps inunderstanding the employee growth within the firm. There is also thenotion of calculation of the average time that is required to fill avacancy. The satisfaction rate of hiring process is also very vitalas a mode of measuring the performance of the specialist. Within thecontext of Woolworth Company, the role of the HR specialist changeswith time as the market demand also changes. The measurement stancementioned provides a general overview of the management of excellencewithin the company.

Fromthe perspective of the integrated network that Woolworth has, thespecific goals mentioned above are seen to be quite achievable. Forexample, the coming up with a good recruitment structure is anactionable goal in which the personnel only need the technicalknow-how and the experience of doing it. In this prospect, the maingoals they will be achieving is to ensure that they create afunctional structure for recruiting the staff (Shields,Brown, Kaine, Dolle-Samuel, North-Samardzic, McLean, Johns, Robinson,O`Leary, and Plimmer, 2015, p.122).The proposition here is based on putting strategic measures to ensurethat the process takes place in the most efficient and convenientway. For example, creating proper schedules for interviewing thepotential employees while demarcating the stages of the interviewsuch as initial internet application, aptitude test, the oralinterviews and then lastly the medical test. The proper coordinationof these activities is quite actionable and achievable. Furthermore,it is usually accepted that the use of advanced technology inscheduling would allow easy and efficient recruitment process.

Agreat source of motivation in organizations is when set goals orobjectives are realistic or relevant to the tasks or responsibilitiesat hand. It is important for the human resource specialist atWoolworths to come up with realistic and pertinent performance goalsso as to motivate employees to work towards achieving the same(Belogolovsky,and Bamberger, 2014, p.98).As such, in the goal-setting process, the HR specialist will have toalign the roles or tasks of employees with the performance goals. Forinstance, at Woolworths, there is a broad range of job positionsincluding marketers, customer care agents, and those responsible fordelivering goods to the customers` doorsteps. In this case, theperformance goals set by the HR specialist will be different formarketers, customer care agents, and those dealing with door-to-doordeliveries and this is where the relevance perspective is crucial(Frey,Homberg, and Osterloh, 2013, p.90).Other than giving careful consideration to relevance, the HRspecialist at Woolworths will have to give consideration to howrealistic the set performance goals are. The realistic perspectiverefers to how the set performance goals will be viewed by theemployees and other stakeholders of the organization as sensible,practical, achievable, or familiar. Employees are more motivatedwhen they work towards achieving goals with which they are familiaror that they find reasonable (Ederer,and Manso, 2013, p.121).For example, the HR specialist at Woolworths will set a performancegoal where marketing agents have to reach ten potential customers intwo weeks. Of course, such a performance goal is practical andachievable and would see the employees work with commitment andmotivation towards accomplishing it (Chang,2016, p.99).

Managersand other individuals dealing with the goal-setting process inorganizations also have to give critical consideration to thetimeliness of the set performance goals. Timeliness of a goalprovides insight into how achievable it is within a defined timescaleand with the progress towards achieving the goal being subject tocontinuous feedback. When setting, or coming up with performancegoals at Woolworths, the HR specialist will be tasked with definingtime scales within which various tasks will be accomplished (Gerhart,and Fang, 2014, p.121).As already mentioned, for individuals dealing with marketing, the HRspecialist will have to outline a particular time scale within whichthese individuals are expected to cover or reach customers in a givenarea or location. For example, in the goal-setting process, the HRspecialist will have to indicate the number of days, weeks, or monthsallocated or required for the accomplishment of a certain performancegoal. Serious and effective marketing would need sufficient time,and thus, the HR specialist would indicate that marketing agents areexpected to reach or interact with customers for three months.Fundamentally, setting timely performance goals is a key motivatingfactor for employees, and would see the employees become morededicated and committed to achieving the set performance goal(DeNisi,and Smith, 2014, p.110).

Inaddressing the drawbacks of goal setting theory, one of the demeritsof goal setting is that wrong context of the objectives has atranscending effect of demotivating the employees. Against thisbackground, the aims of the company need to be well crafted to avoidmismatch of priorities at hand. For example, when two goals aresimultaneously set within the enterprise, if more focus is given toone of the goals, it would be tough to achieve the other objective.Flexible prioritization of target will be the solution to the problem(Posthuma,Campion, Masimova, and Campion, 2013, p.191).Lastly, there is the issue of tunnel vision where the employees givemuch focus only on the goals that they have been given whileneglecting the aspects of the firm. The best way to deal with thisproblem is through creation a platform of a high level of autonomy.In a nutshell, the goal setting theory is one of the most significanttools for ensuring the desired goals of the firm are met.

References

Armstrong,M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong`shandbook of human resource management practice.Kogan Page Publishers.

Belogolovsky,E. and Bamberger, P.A., 2014. Signaling in secret: Pay forperformance and the incentive and sorting effects of pay secrecy.Academyof Management Journal,57(6),pp.1706-1733.

Chang,J.F., 2016. Businessprocess management systems: strategy and implementation.CRC Press.

Cummings,T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organizationdevelopment and change.Cengage learning.

DeNisi,A. and Smith, C.E., 2014. Performance appraisal, performancemanagement, and firm-level performance: a review, a proposed model,and new directions for future research. TheAcademy of Management Annals,8(1),pp.127-179.

Ederer,F. and Manso, G., 2013. Is pay for performance detrimental toinnovation?. ManagementScience,59(7),pp.1496-1513.

Frey,B.S., Homberg, F. and Osterloh, M., 2013. Organizational controlsystems and pay-for-performance in the public service. OrganizationStudies,34(7),pp.949-972.

Gerhart,B. and Fang, M., 2014. Pay for (individual) performance: Issues,claims, evidence and the role of sorting effects. HumanResource Management Review,24(1),pp.41-52.

Posthuma,R.A., Campion, M.C., Masimova, M. and Campion, M.A., 2013. A highperformance work practices taxonomy integrating the literature anddirecting future research. Journalof Management,p.0149206313478184.

Shields,J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A.,McLean, P., Johns, R., Robinson, J., O`Leary, P. and Plimmer, G.,2015. ManagingEmployee Performance &amp Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies.Cambridge University Press.