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Group Dynamics within the American Government

GroupDynamics within the American Government

GroupDynamics within the American Government

OnSeptember 17th, 1787, the Constitution of the United States ofAmerica was signed by 38 of 41 delegates who were present at theconclusion of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia(history.com, 2010). Under the American constitution, the citizens ofAmerica were promised some basic rights, such as freedom of bothreligion and speech. The Constitution created a government thatsimply put the power in the hands of the people. Together this leadstoo many political disagreements, along with outcomes. Religion andrace have always been fundamental aspects of politics in America.Though these elements are often viewed as separate parties, manytimes they tend to coincide one another. Often individuals identifywith certain religious backgrounds, or cultural descents, however, itis these firm affiliations that shape not only personal politicalstances but politics in America as a whole. As Obama`s lengthy,eight-year term comes to a close America faces one of the mostdemanding, yet controversial elections in history. Four score andseven years ago, politically, America faced the same issues regardingrace, and welfare as we do today.

Conceptof Group Dynamics

“Americanshave widely different views on racial tension, and who’s to blame?”(Milligan, 2016). The race has always been a constant, underlyingissue, in the 1960’s, the black people feared the police and thewhites felt threatened by potential African- American power. In 2008,America elected the first ever African American president, BarrackObama. Instead of making Americans more comfortable with minorityleadership, Obama’s election provoked these fears. &quotObamascared so many white people it made Trump`s candidacy possible andhis nomination plausible” (Milligan, 2016). As Hilary Clinton haswon over the majority of the African American population, Trump, withless than one percent of black voters, is doing worse than anyRepublican nominee in the past. &quotInstead of [racial tension andanimus] dying down or moderating to the degree that it becomes deminimus, we`re regressing. It seems like we`re going backward”(Milligan, 2016). The race today appears to be more of an issue thanever before, which appears to be a defining factor in the upcomingelection. In consequence of Hilary using the race card to her fulladvantage, Trump is now considered racist. America seems to have lostsight of the real meaning of politics due to racial opinions andstances.

Racismhas a direct correlation to economic status and the welfare statethat we live in today. A large percent of the minority voters relyon the liberal entitlement stance of the Democratic Party they aredependent on the system. In turn, this guarantees them a vote atelection time. This dynamic leaves the individual with littleincentive to leave the system they have become dependent upon italso leaves them victim to repeating a lifestyle of poverty forthemselves and their children (Wallis, 2016).

Now,this is the point where a person brings up crimes that areblack-on-black, but the issue is crimes by black-on-black are not adangerous thing anymore like a crime by white-on-white is. As humanbeings, we are homogeneous historically, and we socialize and livewith people with similar origin demographically (Wallis, 2016). Thisexplains why 93% victims of black murder are killed by perpetratorswho are black, and why 84% victims of white murder victims aremurdered by white perpetrators. Same numbers, despite one of thesubsets, are exposed to an oppression history, a rate of poverty thatis higher, and school systems that are poor.

Peoplewho are black in America have not been set up to succeedhistorically, but for failure. A closer evaluation of the numberssuggests that crimes which are black-on-black are not the issue, butthe issue is the crime by poor-on-poor. Because the Act of CivilRights was just 50 years ago, it’s not surprising that individualswho are African American were to achieve a representation that ishigher in that category than their white counterparts who are morehistorically-privileged (Silva, 2014). So it is critical to focus ongetting solutions to the causes underlying, instead of blaming othersfor the final outcomes. Regardless of the main issue being crimesblack-on-black, there is the issue of police killings which should becurbed before it becomes another main issue. Before it is suggestedthat killings by police are a direct impact of apprehension by anofficer over entering neighborhoods that are high-crime, it has beenstudied and proven that the rates of crime of a certain area lack anybearing on the increased rate of police violence.

Impactof Racism in America

Thesplit between the slave economy of the South that is primarily of theSouth and the economy of the north that is more mercantilecontributed in a states` rights emphasis that made the United Stateshave a government that is very weak. Many cultural aspects of Americastem from the lack of a government that is effective. For instance,most people are surprised that the United States has approximatelythree-quarters of the lawyers of the world (Omi &amp Winant, 2014).

Apartial explanation for this is the attitude that is moralistic fromAmerica, which puts heavy penalties that are criminal on vices thatare private, with a punishment emphasis, not treatment. Anotherexplanation is that the society puts such value on material successthere is regular competition for a position which leads to conflict.But a source that is more serious of the requirement for lawyers andregular litigation in the US is the government, and it lacksefficiency (Kendi, 2016). In comparison with other countries,currently the United States lacks policies that are effective forprotecting the staff or policies for welfare assisting the people inneed. The victims of injustice, accidents or even poverty have tochange to the legal system for redress since the political system isnot just adequate (Silva, 2014).

Thealcoholic model of the family can aid in understanding the denial ofthe effects of racism in the America. The whole society cannot becompared directly to a specific family. In the bigger society,interests that are special are involved in the racism promotioneither directly via various political and economic measures orindirectly via the racist`s values promotion. Most people in Americafail to acknowledge that there is a racial problem, or if they do it,they engage in scapegoating, where they say that blacks are the mainsource of this problem. The worst thing is that most Americans whoare white find it hard to see the impacts of this racism the on thewhite Americans (Gallagher &amp Lippard, 2014).

TheAmerican society constantly deludes itself by refusing to discussrace, except as a social problem that is isolated or a dilemma forAmericans. This pretense that is social is maintained in all civicclasses of America and at orations of Fourth of July. They always putemphasis on the greatness of this country, while virtually ignoringthe corruptive impact of racism in the history of the nation as wellas the society (Kendi, 2016).

Racismin Justice

America’sjustice system is marred with racial discrimination. Blacks face thebrute of law enforcement agencies for minor offences. It is like thepolice in the United States have a mindset that black is criminal(Neubauer &amp Fradella, 2015). A recent analysis offederally collected data on fatal police shootings byProPublica revealed that a young black male is 21 times more likelyto be murdered by police than their white counterparts. The research,which targeted teens of between 15 and 19 years, indicated that perevery one million, 31.17 black teens were killed whereas only 1.47white teens per million were killed by police between 2010 and 2012.The findings of this research fully support the black Americans’cry for centuries that theyare being killed at astounding rates when set against the rest of theAmerican population. Michael Brown, a black teenager, was fatallyshot twelve times by Darren Wilson, a white police officer inFerguson, Missouri in August 2014. The teenager had just stolen a fewcigarillosandwas unarmed when the police officer shot at him. The US Department ofJustice cleared Wilson of any offences in the shooting, stating thatthe witnesses who testified against him were unreliable. Thisincidence sparked rigorous debate about how the police handleAfrican-Americans in the country. Even if the police officer shot atBrown in self-defense, one or two bullets in the leg would be enoughto bring the suspect under total control. But firing twelve bulletsat an unarmed suspect is beyond legitimate reason.

Statistics by The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rightsindicate that blacks make up less than 10% of America’s population.On the contrary, black males make up 35% of the nation’s prisonpopulation. These figures surprise many in the modern-day UnitedStates, as there was high expectation that with a black president anda black Attorney General, racial segregation would be stemmed. I willnot say that the current administration is the cause of this problemit has its roots dating centuries behind, but it has equally failedto combat the vice just like previous regimes. In the war on drugs,52% of male blacks who are convicted of drug-related crimes aresentenced to prison by state courts as opposed to 34% of males. Thefigures for the female gender are not any different 41% of blackfemales convicted of drug offences are sentenced to prison againstonly 24% of white females. On violent offences, an estimated 74% ofblack males are sent to prison compared to 60% of white males. Thesefigures are a clear indication that the country still has a long wayto go in the quest for fairness and equality in the courts as far asrace is concerned.

Racial disparities in sentences handed out to convicts of a similaroffence are evident in the country. Black Americans are bound to behanded more mandatory sentences as opposed to white convicts for asimilar offence. An African-American can be sentenced to ten yearsimprisonment for an offence that a white convict receives a sixmonths probationary sentence. Adams &amp Bell (2016) note thatAfrican Americans receive sentences which are 49% longer than theirwhite counterparts with similar offences. Defendants charged withkilling a white person are 11 times more likely to receive the deathpenalty than defendants charged with killing an African-American. Onthe other hand, African-Americans are five times more likely toreceive a death penalty than a white crime. African-American deathsentences account for over 42% of all death sentences in America.This, again, does not reflect their percentage composition ofAmerica’s total population.

The traffic police have also been cited for their racial bias inenforcement of traffic rules and regulations. Black motorists areunduly stopped for trivial traffic offences. This subjects the blacksto the irritation and degradation of police interrogation andinsensibly increases the number of blacks arrested for floutingtraffic rules. The reasons for their arrests are so minor that wereit not for the racially biased traffic police, could not come to theattention of the authorities. For example, between 1995 and 1997, 70%of drivers that were stopped and inspected by the Maryland StatePolice were black (Wallis, 2016).

Solutions

Thesolution to the issue of racism starts with the privileged people. Itbegins with taking the time to listen and hearing them out. There arethousands of persons or even millions who try to tell otherssomething about their past experiences, and they are faced with manydoubts and even disbelief. They are also met with statistics that areconvoluted, meant to make their impressions useless and disapprovewhat they have to say (Higginbotham, 2013). The people, who wereraised up and grew up in Atlanta, were surrounded by various friendswho were black. They have been able to get firsthand experience ofthe kind of racial disparities in treatment of police.

Agood example is when some black men were detained and held atgunpoint for an hour, just because the police received a burglarycall after seeing black men in the company of one white man in avehicle and to be precise a BMW. The white man was pulled over as hedrove in a car with his friends who were black, despite having notbroken any traffic laws. He was stopped for questioning just becausethe officer in charge said it seemed like &quotthey were up tonothing good (Gallagher &amp Lippard, 2014). A white man was alsoconfronted while waiting to host a party for graduation outside avenue before it opened. He was in the company of black Americans, andthe police thoroughly searched their car because they said that itlooked like there was a drug deal going on. But there was no bit ofdrug in the car. Nothing of this kind happened to him while in thecompany of his friends who are white. Despite the fact that none ofthese experiences would indicate the statistics, they all make senseof the existing racial disparities in America (Omi &amp Winant,2014). Even the whites are persecuted for being in the company ofblacks.

Conclusion

&quotInGod We Trust&quot is a term that directly affects the religiousdevotion of the American people. However, this seems to be forgotten,and often disregarded. Religion in America consists of many differentgroup dynamics. There is a wide range of both religion and ethnicityamong the various groups. Seventh-day Adventists, Muslims, andJehovah`s Witnesses are among the most racially and ethnicallydiverse U.S. religious groups. The least diverse are the NationalBaptist Convention, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America andthe Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (Lipka, 2015). The dissimilarityamongst all of these groups has shaped many political and religiousissues in America.

Conclusively,the government needs the support of the American people. Although thedifferences between races, religious groups, social classes, andpolitical views create many disputes, these elements are all vital tothe American government. &quotGroups affected by group thinkingignore alternatives and tend to take irrational actions thatdehumanize other groups&quot (Group Think, 2016). The nature ofgroup think, only to side with all those who support your opinion,and turn against those who do not, is a direct reflection ofAmerica`s political system.

References

Adams,M., &amp Bell, L. A. (Eds.). (2016). Teaching for diversity andsocial justice. Routledge.

Complexitiesin Health Care Ethics | Creighton University. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://online.creighton.edu/mshce/masters-in-healthcare-ethics/resources/the-ele

Gallagher,C. &amp Lippard, C. (2014).&nbspRaceand racism in the United States : an encyclopedia of the Americanmosaic.Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.

Higginbotham,F. (2013).&nbspGhostsof Jim Crow : ending racism in post-racial America.New York: New York University Press.

Kendi,I. (2016).&nbspStampedfrom the beginning : the definitive history of racist ideas inAmerica.New York: Nation Books.

Lipka,M. (2015). 10facts about religion in America.Retrieved October 10, 2016, fromhttp://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/08/27/10-facts-about-religion-in-america/

Neubauer,D. W., &amp Fradella, H. F. (2015). America`s courts and thecriminal justice system. Cengage Learning.

Omi,M., &amp Winant, H. (2014).&nbspRacialformation in the United States.Routledge.

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ProPublica.Retrieved on November 22, 2016 from https://www.propublica.org/

Silva,E. (2014).&nbspRacismwithout racists : color-blind racism and the persistence of racialinequality in America.Lanham: Rowman &amp Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

TheLeadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights. Retrieved November22nd2016 from www.civilrights.org

Wallis,J. (2016).&nbspAmerica`soriginal sin : racism, white privilege, and the bridge to a newAmerica.Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press

Whatis Groupthink? (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2016, fromhttp://www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthink overview.htm