- April 28, 2020
House Construction Report by
House Construction Report 11
House Construction Report
4106BEUG CONSTRUCTIONTECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES 1
Task1 – Site Investigation and Groundworks………………………………………4
Task2 – Foundations………………………………………………………………..6
Task3 – External Walls……………………………………………………………..8
Task4 – Floors………………………………………………………………………10
Task5 – Roofs………………………………………………………………………12
Thisreport gives an overview of steps of construction, the case studysite being Church Fields Garston L19 8NG.
Itgives and in-depth elaboration of site investigation techniques andtheir importance in relation to the design of simple foundations. Thereport also explains the problems that may result from groundoperations. Under foundations, we give a keen focus on trench fillfoundations and the steps involved in their construction togetherwith the advantages of having a trench fill foundation at our site.
Abrief study of floors and roofs is provided too.
Thisstudy also includes drawings, sketches, and illustrative images toelaborate the major points of study.
Keywords:ground investigation, foundation,walling, floor, roof
Task 1 – Site Investigation and Groundworks
On the basis of the location of the site, explain what site investigation information would be needed and how this information assists in the selection of the foundations?
Before an engineer’s design of a foundation, anin-depth study of the physical properties of the soil profile isimportant (Chen, 2012). This will inform the foundation designapproach that the engineer will adopt. By conducting groundinvestigation, the following information would be generated:
The groundwater conditions at the site
The physical properties of the soil and the rock
The nature and strata sequence
The mechanical properties of the soil including compressibility and strength
The characteristics of adjacent foundations of structures bordering the site of study
And other information such as chemical composition of ground water.
This information is important in selectingfoundation type e.g. raft, matt or pad.
Explain the likely problems the ground, in this case, clay soil with some rubble infill in parts of the site may have on the foundations. Also identify and explain how excavations can be carried out safely, with specific reference to the safe use of a mechanical plant.
Thelikely problems that could be encountered on the ground are:
Slope collapse: this would be as a result of the rubble in the strata. This can be solved by shoring in case excavation is done.
Irregular infiltration: this would result in saturation of soil resulting in interference with structure integrity.
Safe Excavation Measures:
Toensure safe excavation, there is need to:
Engage an experienced team of experts in excavations and dredging.
Ensure use of good machinery e.g. a valid excavator.
Ensure excavated material is taken out of site and dumped appropriately (Johnston, 2016)
Safetyenforcement can therefore be ensured as below:
Falls into trenches or excavations
Have safety tape and signs on site to guide and caution
Unstable adjacent structures
Offer viable ground and structural support to them.
Tripping over equipment, debris and spoil
Organise equipment and debris in a well set manner.
Incidents involving vehicles and mobile plant
Have a well-structured site mobilisation layout plan
Task 2 – Foundations
a.Assuming trench fill foundations are to be used on this site, detailto scale a typical foundation and explain why such foundations wouldbe used in this case.
Trench fills would be used for the followingpurposes:
Save time: trench fills take lesser time than any other type of foundation to build.
Save Costs: it is cheaper to construct.
Foundation depth and width reduction, since it covers a smaller depth.
c. Producea method statement of activities for the construction of the trenchfill strip foundation from setting out to damp proof course level inthe external wall.
Accordingto Fan et al. (2014), the steps involved in construction of a trenchfill are:
Site Mobilisation: this involves site clearance and delivery of required materials to the site. Debris and all unwanted materials must be removed from the site, e.g., tree stumps and foundations of old buildings.
Setting out: accurate measurement and positioning with proper reference to existing buildings should be observed, and all angles and inclinations provisions must be well checked. Stakes and inelastic string are required for alignment. Physical marking on the ground can be done using ‘white dust.`
Excavation: depending on the type of machinery available, trench excavation should be done to the desired depth and within the set out ranges. The excavated earth should be cleared from site at least 2 meters away from the trenches.
Formwork & Shoring: Formwork help to ensure less wastage of materials and hold the same until the desired dry-usable time. It is important to offer adequate support for slopes on weak soil strata, but for our case, our strata are clay.
Casting / Concreting: Concrete should be poured from a height of 1.2m to mix up and ensure a better bonding. A proper mix ratio is advised. Casting is to be done in layers of 10cm thick to 15 cm thick, and this should be levelled to give a monolithic finish.
Damp Proof is impervious to eliminate moisture rise through walls of the structure. This should be cast 4 days from the casting of concrete.
Task 3 – External Walls
Detail to a scale of 1:10 a vertical cross-section through the masonry cavity wall at a window opening showing the detail at the lintel and the cill, including a specification of the main materials and components of the cavity wall.
Produce a storyboard of the construction of the cavity walls from ground to roof level, clearly identifying the main stages in construction.
Accordingto Chudley& Greeno (2013), the construction of the cavity walls involvesthe following:
Cavity Wall from foundation
After foundation formation, a suitable insulation material is selected from a reputable supplier. These come in varied lengths and sizes
Cavity walls help in the insulation of rooms from the damp proof membrane, the masonry blocks are installed with the insulation material between the two blocks. Where the insulation material need jointing, an adequate bonding material is to be used to ensure regularity in insulating.
Lintel & Cill
On the cill, lintel and window levels, appropriate stopper should be installed, of the same insulation material to eliminate weather interference and temperature irregularities in the room. Same applies to the roof level, where the insulation is recommended to touch or go beyond ceiling level.
Task 4 – Floors
Detail to a scale of 1:10 a cross section showing the construction of the suspended concrete beam and block ground floor at the junction with an internal party wall, including a specification of the main components and damp resistance.
Produce a method statement for the safe construction of the upper floor using the engineered timber I-beam joists as shown in the photographs.
Source:Supreme Concrete 2016
Kurian (2016) notes that site preparation isessential to attain a final ground level. The subsoil should be welllevelled and top soil containing vegetation removed. Appropriatetreatment with weed killer is called for. A vapour barrier should belaid on top of the subsoil to eliminate moisture rise to the floor.
Brickwork foundation should then be erected andwalling done. A damp proof course should be placed on top of the wallsection. The dummy walls should go above the vapour barrier level andsome ventilation space allowed around 5cm (Kurian, 2016).
According to Emmitt & Gorse (2006), beamsshould be arranged across the wall to wall edges and their endsshould be fitted with precast closure blocks. The inner sectionsshould be filled with infill blocks appropriately.
Task 5 – Roofs
Explain with sketches the typical construction of a warm deck flat roof and how it differs from a cold deck flat roof. Provide a specification of the main components of a warm deck roof.
Components of the Warm Deck Roof:
It is characterised with insulation installed over the deck of theroof structure. It requires no ventilation and it ensures an annualtemperature control by protecting components below it from cold andhot weather (BuildingRegs4Plans, 2016).
Thetypes of this kind of roof are Inverted & sandwich.
So,Shane (2011) states that typically this roof entails:
Chippings at the topmost, which sit on Bitumen felt- lying on theinsulation. The insulation layer lies above a vapour control layerthat is supported by plywood decking. Firrings can be used beforeceiling joists, and plaster board covers the bottom part.
Explain the processes involved in the construction of a timber trussed rafter pitched roof including the necessary health and safety precautions.
Accordingto Riley & Cotgrave (2008), for a timber truss, an assembly canbe made with the following steps:
Connect and fix the Bottom Chord in accordance to walls support point edges and base plates. This should span all through the building width. If a king post is needed, it holds it at the midrib section.
Connect the top chord to the Bottom Chord. An overhang allowance is recommended for adequate roof overhang for the pitching point.
Additional support webs are then to be fixed inside the frame of the truss to offer stability and prevent lateral movement of the truss.
Health & Safety Precautions:
This task involves the use of timber, hack saws,nails or bolts and hammers.
It is advised to have experienced staffs undertake this task, or apprentice to have good guidance from their superiors.
Timber should be well supported to avoid dropping and injuring technicians
Hacksaws can result in bleeding if mishandled appropriate safety wear should be observed.
This report has given an in-depth study and illustrative focus on:site investigation that is important before construction of anystructural element a detailed study of the foundation, wallingprinciples, flooring, insulation, and roofing.
It is important that safety precautions are observed at all times toensure operatives are available and of good health to clear theprojects. Putting workers’ or house occupants’ health in jeopardycan result in disabilities, loss of life and costly legal tussles.
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Fan,C.H.E.N., Chen, X., Xue, K., Zhou, K., Pan, J., Li, H. and Wang, Y.,Shanghai Hua Hong Nec Electronics Co., Ltd., 2014. Methodof filling shallow trenches.U.S. Patent 8,685,830.
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SupremeConcrete 2016. SuspendedBeam & Block Floor. Retrieved 9thNovember 2016 from http://www.supremeconcrete.co.uk/general/suspended-beam-and-block-floors/
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