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Immune response in a non-infectious disease or condition

Immuneresponse in a non-infectious disease or condition

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Leukemia

Bloodcancer is a general term used when referring to malignant growthsthat affect the blood, lymphatic system, and the bone marrow. One ofthe most common forms of blood cancer is Leukemia. Individuals whohave leukemia tend to produce an abnormal number of white blood cellswhich are immature which can clog up the bone marrow hence preventingthe organ from producing other vital cells (Seifert et al. 2012).This essay is going to highlight Leukemia’s symptoms, pathology,affected population, immune responses and current diagnostics to thedisorder.

Symptoms

Commonsigns associated with leukemia include persistent, fatigue, swollenlymph nodes and enlarged spleen or liver, easy and recurrentbleedings and frequent and severe infections. Other victims alsocomplain of small red spots in the skin and fever andleukocytoclastic vasculitis.

Pathology

Leukemiacan be categorized as either chronic or acute and also as lymphocytesand myelogenous. In the acute type, immature cells are produced, andthe condition develops rapidly. The immature cells die if nottreated. In Chronic Leukemia, the cells produced do not function(Seifert et al. 2012). Myelogenous leukemia, on the other hand,affects monocytes and granulocytes.

Peoplewho are at risk

Themost susceptible aggregate to leukemia include previous cancerpatients who have been exposed to certain types of chemotherapy orradiation treatment. Genetics also plays a critical role andindividuals whose ancestry reveal inherited cases of the disease areat a higher risk. Research suggest that chronic leukemia is likely tooccur in adults who are above 40 years of age (De Larrea, 2013).

Immuneresponse to Leukemia

Incases of cancer, immune responses tend to be very specific to thetumor antigens. This means that the activated immune system isdesigned in a way that it can recognize the tumor antigen expressedby each patient. Activated T cells are the ones which are then taskedwith killing the tumor cells (Gutjahr, Greil &amp Hartmann, 2015).In some cases, T cells also activate B cells which in turn becomeantibody-producing plasma cells.

Itis important to note that Leukemia is also caused by mutations andthis has made it even harder for natural the immune system to managethe condition because of possible resistance issues. Leukemia candevelop in two stages, namely the pre-genetic alteration andpostnatal stages. In cases where cancerous cells have been killed,additional antigens can release a stimulating factor which leads tothe production of new T and B cells. This mechanism has allowed theimmune system to recognize cancerous cells as they try to mutate.Immune responses are important when it comes to management of cancer.

Diagnosis

Someof the laboratory-based methods make use of blood counts and bonemarrow examination. Additionally, it is possible to use bloodchemistry tests. Most techniques used in diagnosis Leukemia aremolecular. They are preferred because of their accuracy andreliability. Physicians use methods such as PCR, X-Ray andradiography and imaging techniques and bone remodeling. Lastly, CTScans are recommended for diagnosis of Leukemia.

Conclusion

Leukemiais a non-infectious disease which if not treated in time can causesignificant losses of lives. The condition is complicated because itinterferes with the normal production of white and red blood cellshence disrupting with body’s protection and transportation ofoxygen. Some of signs and symptoms of Leukemia include fatigue. Forefficient detection, one can also use PCR, X-Ray, and MRI.

References

DeLarrea, C. F., Kyle, R. A., Durie, B. G., Ludwig, H., Usmani, S.,Vesole, D. H &amp Kumar, S. K. (2013). Plasma cell leukemia: theconsensus statement on diagnostic requirements, response criteria andtreatment recommendations by the International Myeloma Working Group.Leukemia,&nbsp27(4),780-791.

Seifert,M., Sellmann, L., Bloehdorn, J., Wein, F., Stilgenbauer, S., Dürig,J., &amp Küppers, R. (2012). Cellular origin and pathophysiology ofchronic lymphocytic leukemia.&nbspTheJournal of experimental medicine,&nbsp209(12),2183-2198.

Gutjahr,J. C., Greil, R., &amp Hartmann, T. N. (2015). The role of CD44 inthe pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.&nbspFrontiersin immunology,&nbsp6.