- April 6, 2020
Thispaper offers a review of cellular immunology and its relation totreatment and use of vaccines to prevent infections. Vaccinedevelopment strategies, as well as the relevance of viruses andbacteria in the development process, will also be discussed. Specificvaccines of specific diseases will be discussed herein withparticular interest on smallpox, anthrax and Mucosal immunity andvaccines. Peptide and DNA vaccines will also be discussed. It emergesthat the effective vaccinations available in the market are still toofew in comparison to the demand regarding diseases. This is alsodespite the fact that the majority of microorganisms or microbes thatcause diseases enter the body via mucosal epithelia (Petrovsky,2013) a factor that relates with low uptake of antigens by theepithelium, antigen degradation, tolerance to some vaccine forms,safety concerns, and absence of memory cell formation. Additionally,it is important to note that findings on vaccination researchconducted on animal models cannot be linked to the case of humans ina direct manner (Palucka, Ueno, & Banchereau, 2011). Overall,there still exist dire needs for more research in the field ofvaccination for purposes of eradicating some malignant diseases thatcontinue to plague modern-day human societies around the world.
Forthousands of years, human societies around the world, as well asother living things, have always been vulnerable to infections ofemerging diseases. A keen look at the illnesses they face shows thatmicrobes are the leading causes of infectious diseases. The diseasespose real and grave dangers to people since they have a capacity oftaking away the life of an individual in cases where they overwhelmthe body’s immune system, and no meaningful treatment proceduresare engaged (Petrovsky, 2013). As such, discovery and development ofvaccines, as medical elements that made them develop immunity againstsome diseases came as good news for the people. Even though muchprogress has been achieved in the development of vaccines, it isappalling to note that some diseases continue to scour humansocieties around the world since they still lack forms ofvaccinations. Such diseases are results of new or emergent microbes,the most notable example being HIV and Hepatitis B (Arciniega, &Domínguez-Castillo, 2011).
Akeen evaluation of vaccination requires one to engage knowledge ofimmunology. Immunoglobulin or blood proteins that pose as antibodiesare produced by B-lymphocytes. They are the core mediators of humoralimmunity and so determine how an individual’s body responds to aninfection. Undeniably, manipulation of production of Immunoglobulinin the body in a manner that makes it produce antibodies for somespecific antigens characterizes the process of vaccination. A keyperson that was instrumental in the development of vaccination was19thCentury Frenchman Louis Pasteur. The scholar is well credited forcoming up with vaccinations for anthrax, rabies, and chicken choleravaccines (Geison, 2014).
Regardingdevelopment of vaccines, it is important to note that two types ofvaccines exist. To begin with, there are the live attenuatedvaccines, which involve live virus particles that have low virulencefactor. Such types of vaccines offer the long-term host immunity withthe issuance of just a single dose in fact, they can facilitatelifelong immunity or protection from an individual disease with asingle dose administration. The live viruses aid in immune cellreplication within the body of the host. Also, these vaccines are notgiven to persons that are immune-compromised. The another type ofvaccines is referred to as inactivated vaccines. These vaccines arecharacterized by the capability of full destruction of unwantedmicroorganisms in the body of a host. Such vaccine is administered tothe host multiple times and does not serve the purpose of offering ahosts immunization against certain disease infections.
Employmentof immunoglobin IV treatments bears the aim of providing protection(immunity) that is greater than the infection for patients that areimmune-compromised. An important point that is worth mentioning isthat immunoglobin is typically gathered on the platform of a pool ofdonors, even though this represents the threat of infection toinfused individuals to some level per se. Even so, the risks of suchremain low regarding some serious diseases like Hepatitis B and HIVowing to legal requirements of mandatory testing. Nevertheless, thetransfused immunoglobulin is hardly 100% pure due to the presence ofCD4 cells, CD8 cells, cytokines, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)(Löffler, et al., 2016).
Itis also important to note that multiple vaccines in use today owetheir development to the usage of some forms of weakened bacteria andor viruses. Edward Jenner is well remembered for employing cowpoxvaccine for purposes of inoculating humans against smallpox (Geison,2014). In fact, when Pasteur commenced his work on the anthraxvaccine, cowpox was already being used as a vaccine for smallpox.Even so, it proved difficult for the researchers at the time to comeup with a weakened form of the virus, as for the many that wereinjected with the vaccine, a good number contracted the disease, andsome died. On the other hand, Pasteur’s epidemics involved aweakened form of the diseases’ causative agents, which he hadproduced in his lab synthetically. For this reason, Pasteur did notwaste time and energy in looking for naturally occurring infectiveorganism that was weakened in nature (Geison, 2014).
Diseasesand their vaccines
Anexample of the vaccine, as hinted before in this paper is thesmallpox vaccine. According to Voigt et al. (2016), smallpox, a viraldisease, has been a threat to humanity for a long time. Duringearlier times, wherein there was no vaccination for the viraldisease, it was responsible for high mortality rates in the world.With characteristics of rapid transmission over and above long-termailments on its survivors, there was a dire need for theestablishment of herd immunity against the disease. As such, theeradication of smallpox is observed as one of the greatestachievements in the field of medicine (Moss, 2011). Important to noteis that herd immunity refers to communal immunity, of societies orother groupings of people. Such measures of herd community enabledthe people of the world to achieve eradication of the smallpoxdisease. Continued vaccine development of the disease, however,continues with concerns of possibilities of some opting to use it asa biological weapon (Moss, 2011).
Thevaccine for smallpox is made of the vaccinia virus- a live virus thatcauses the body of a host develop antibodies for facilitatingimmunity to smallpox. As such, vaccination sites for smallpox need tobe carefully managed and contained for purposes of preventing thespread of the virus into the larger environment. The vaccinia virusis a benign relative of the variola virus, which causes smallpox inthe first place. Due to the threat of use of smallpox as a biologicalweapon as hinted before, there have been some enhanced strategies inthe production of the vaccine. DNA-based Poxviruses are mainlyutilized in the development of the vaccines (Ferraro, et al., 2011).Experiments also involve the use of animal models of theorthopoxvirus disease in relation to studying smallpox in humans.
Anotherinfectious disease under discussion is the anthrax disease azoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, as discovered byRobert Koch in 1870. Three common forms of anthrax exist namely, theinhalational, gastrointestinalandcutaneous anthrax. In 1881, and by working independently, Pasteur andGreenfield came up with the vaccine for Bacillus anthracis forlivestock. Even so, the vaccine by Louis Pasteur is widely consideredas the first effective anthrax vaccine (Chitlaru, Altboum, Reuveny, &Shafferman, 2011). Normally, early treatment for anthrax has thepotential of success in curing the disease. This is mainly achievedby use of antibiotics like tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin,and ciprofloxacin. Still, pulmonary anthrax is a case of medicalemergency. The vaccines for the disease include the Russian vaccine,also referred to as STI- a live-attenuated vaccine based on Bacillusanthracis’ stern strain. Nevertheless, the vaccine is reported tohave some serious side effects on patients a factor that makes itsuse restricted to healthy adults (Arciniega, &Domínguez-Castillo, 2011). Another vaccine for anthrax, which issecond-generation and still under evaluation is a recombinantProtective Antigen (rPA) of the Bacillus anthracis. According toresearch, this form of vaccine shows potential for an attractiveapproach to dealing with the disease.
RegardingMucosal immunity and vaccines, there are cells, molecules, andlymphoid structures with a capacity of enhancing immunity to somepathogens. In actuality, mucosal infections lead to the developmentof a sense of cell-mediated immunity as a manifestation of thecytotoxic T-lymphocytes CD8+and CD4-positive(CD4+)cells that are of the Thelper-type 1(Ma, Deenick, Batten, & Tangye, 2012). Such responses by the bodyof the host involve the synthesis of S-IgA or the secretoryimmunoglobulin, the antibodies that provide immunity againstpathogens (Tomaras, et al., 2013). The vaccines involved are the oralrotavirus and recombinant nasal influenza vaccines. Nevertheless,reemerging mucosal infections seem to offer the parasite an upperhand. Indeed, pathogens like the Vibrio cholera can be confined tothe mucosal surfaces as a function of the vaccines, which induceS-IgA (Tomaras, et al., 2013). Overall, the vaccines have a reliablecapacity of curbing pathogenesis even though only a few of them, oforal intake, are approved for use on humans (Hird, & Grassly,2012). Some notable vaccines are the Salmonella typhi, poliovirus,RotaShield, and typhoid fever vaccine of S Typhi- Ty21a (Bode, etal., 2011).
Still,some parasites, for instance, malaria, prove to be difficult to dealwith by use of vaccination. This is because the parasites havecharacteristics of multiple developmental stages that areimmunologically distinct (Palucka, Ueno, & Banchereau, 2011). Forthis reason, the parasites have immune avoidance characteristicsthey cannot be dealt with by single-antigen vaccines that areadministered on a single-stage basis owing to the variability intheir genome. For most of the other infectious diseases, there is analternative to employing DNA vaccines for purposes of achievingimmunity against involved pathogens. Evaluation is still ongoingregarding employment of plasmid DNA vaccines in cases of diseaseslike malaria, herpes simplex, influenza, HIV and hepatitis B amongothers. It is important to note that introduction of DNA vaccines toa host involves capacity of transcribing and translation of thevaccine into a peptide with the aim of achieving a protectiveresponse in the immune cells (Ferraro, et al., 2011).
Thereare still needs for more research in the field of vaccination forpurposes of eradicating some malignant diseases that continue toplague modern-day human societies around the world. The microbes areusually the leading causes of infectious diseases. As such, a keenevaluation of vaccination requires one to engage knowledge ofimmunology. Some of the conditions that require vaccination includesmallpox, anthrax, and mucosal disease. However, it is worth notingthat some parasites, for instance, malaria, prove to be difficult todeal with by use of vaccination because the parasites havecharacteristics of multiple developmental stages that areimmunologically distinct.
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