• Uncategorized

International Marketing Management


Institution Affiliation


The role ofmarketing in the international business environment continues to gowith every passing moment. This can be attributed to the changingenvironmental dynamics and the development of the economy into aglobal village where a product can be supplied to various locationsacross the globe within a short period. Extensive research is beingconducted in order to determine the most appropriate form ofmarketing practices that should be implemented by firms to maximizereturns. The positioning of brands in the market is another factorthat attracts additional attention from global marketers. The growthof some of the international brands has involved the utilization ofthe latest technologies. The level of innovation has also gone anotch higher as business firms face each other in the race todetermine the one with a competitive advantage over the rest.Therefore, international marketing focuses on various factors such asinnovation and positioning strategies when establishing theeffectiveness of a brand.

Keywords: Innovation Marketing Segmentation PositioningMarketers Global brands Market segmentation CreativityTraditional market segmentation Digital platforms Social media


Introduction 5

Research Questions 5

Significance of the Study 6

The Role of Innovation in the Segmentation Process 6

Global Positioning and Branding 8

Criteria for Product Design Decisions 10

Agronomics 12

Aesthetics 12

Economic Value 12

Customer 12

Quality 12

Environment 13

Safety 13

Usability and Reliability 13

Global Brands and Success 14

Responsiveness 14

Protection 14

Differentiation 15

Presence 15

Relevance 15

Conclusions 15

References 16


The changingmarket dynamics have led to the development of various marketingstrategies in an attempt to be unique and limit competition fromother business establishments operating in the same industry (Cateoraet al., 2013). The marketing decisions incorporate various factors inan attempt to ensure that a brand is able to maintain its corporateimage over other corporations (Czinkota &amp A, 2007). This hastherefore led to the creation of specific markets through extensivemarket research. Global brands are incorporating new frameworks ofoperations such as segmentation of the market. This is one of thestrategies that enable the firms to identify the various groups ofconsumers and tailor-make products to meet their particular tastesand preferences (Cateora et al., 2013).

The global position of a firm is also regarded as one of theprimary assets of a brand. A company that has international integrityand a substantial market base is likely to benefit from consumerloyalty and massive sales revenue (Cateora et al., 2013). However,they must ensure that their products are unique and quality ismaintained. The product design goes a long way in determining thesuccess of a business organization. Moreover, there are specificcharacteristics that are exhibited by the international firms(Czinkota &amp A, 2007).


  • What is the role of the creativity in the segmentation process?

  • Why can we say that having an excellent global positioning is one of the principal assets of a brand?

  • What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions?

  • Identify several global brands. What are some of the reasons for the global success of the brands you chose?

Significanceof the Study

The paper willfocus on the analysis of the primary research questions. As such, itwill discuss the impact of creativity during the identification ofsegmentation bases by the business organization. Additionally, itwill debate the role of global positioning by the internationalbrands and focus on product design decisions. Finally, it seeks toidentify the causes of success for some of the world-renowned brands.

TheRole of Innovation in the Segmentation Process

Creativity refersto the development of new ideas that are then implemented into theoperations of business organizations (Amuah, 2013). The primary aimof integration of current procedures in the production process isaimed at ensuring that a corporation is conversant with the latesttrends. Additionally, it might be aimed at staying ahead ofcompetitors in the dynamic environment (Amuah, 2013). On the otherhand, segmentation refers to the process of dividing the market intovarious sections for the purpose of meeting the unique characteristicof each market. It, therefore, ensures that the customers withspecific needs are dealt with appropriately by the businessorganization (Yankelovich &amp Meer, 2006).

The segmentationprocess of the market is also defined as the course of separating themarket into smaller groups of buyers that have similar needs andcharacteristics before developing a custom-tailored marketing mix tomeet their objectives (Yankelovich &amp Meer, 2006). The division ofthe market into several parts enables a business organization toassess its progress and identify the best market to concentrate on asa way of increasing the sales revenue. The success of marketsegmentation will depend on the level of creativity of the marketingteam and the integration of an effective framework of operations(Amuah, 2013).

Otuedon (2016)declares that creativity in market segmentation is important due tothe existence of various ways through which it can be accomplished.Therefore, creativity and innovation determine the level ofeffectiveness of the segmentation (Otuedon, 2016). The process mustmeet the four basic criteria namely substantiality, accessibility,responsiveness, and identifiability (Otuedon, 2016). Substantialityrefers to the size of the segment and whether it would be profitablein the long run. On the other hand, accessibility is concerned withthe means of reaching and actually serving any given segment whereasresponsiveness focuses on the expected reaction from the targetsegment of the market (Amuah, 2013). Finally, identifiability relatesto the ability to identify the decision factors for the buyers(Otuedon, 2016). The capacity of the marketing team to determine thesegmentation bases will depend on how creative they are. However,once the right combination of bases has been identified, a firm canmeet the specific needs of the customers by improving the delivery ofservices (Otuedon, 2016).

Throughcreativity, a business organization will be in a position to identifythe needs in the existing segments before proceeding to manufacturethe goods and services that suit the specific areas of the market(Amuah, 2013). Some of the primary determinants of the segments’buying decisions include attitudes, motivation, beliefs andperception. Having a one-on-one session with the customers would alsoprovide an opportunity for the marketing team to identify the needsof the market (Haron, 2016). This is because a corporation can obtainimmediate feedback from the clientele and use them to improve theirdelivery process (Amuah, 2013).

Developing a more robust and comprehensive approach to marketsegmentation may improve the desirable outcomes. According toYankelovich &amp Meer (2006), most business organizations use thetraditional demographic features in developing the segmentation bases(Otuedon, 2016). They take factors such as age, gender, income level,and education into consideration. However, the old styles may fail tomeet the current market demands (Amuah, 2013). Therefore, it isnecessary to integrate other forms of non-demographic values such astastes and preferences and values since they are likely to influencethe purchasing habits of the clients in comparison to the demographicvariables (Otuedon, 2016).

GlobalPositioning and Branding

Positioning canbe described as the process of implementing the unique benefits of abrand as well as distinctions in the customer’s minds (Haron,2016). As such, it refers to the place occupied by a product in themind of a consumer compared to other existing products in the market(Haron, 2016). This means that the positioning strategy assists themanagers in comprehending how their contributions in the organizationare considered by the clients (Haron, 2016).

The dynamicnature of the business environment has therefore made it mandatoryfor firms to develop selling methods with a higher appeal to thecustomer bases (Holt, 2004). Some of the psychological factors thatdetermine the changing demand framework in the business environmentinclude opinions and taste and preferences (Cateora et al., 2013).The management should, therefore, be able to assess the viability andimportance of the current positioning strategies that have been putin place. This ensures that the business organization is in aposition to gain a sustainable competitive advantage over other firmsin the same industry (Holt, 2004). Take for instance the automobileindustry that has several brands such as Volvo, BMW, Mercedes, andToyota and much more. Likewise, there is a high demand for carsacross the globe. To be able to maintain the target market, brandssuch as BMW and Mercedes have focused on the performance of theirproducts in the market whereas Toyota is known for fuel efficiency.Finally, Volvo lays additional emphasis on the safety of theproducts’ users (Holt, 2004). The firms, therefore, have loyalclientele due to the branding techniques that they have developedover the years (Cateora et al., 2013).

Branding is regarded as one of the most effective ways ofdifferentiating a company’s products from that of fellowcompetitors (Cateora et al., 2013). The customer base identifies witha brand, and as such, a business should be able to gain massivelyfrom the level of loyalty by the clients (Holt, 2004). Consider ascenario whereby one needs to make a purchase, and they havecollected information on the competing products such as the price andavailability. Such a customer will be able to make a purchase basedon the brand of a commodity that they are loyal to (Holt, 2004). Afirm’s global position will, therefore, have a substantial effecton the brand.

To a researcher,a brand can be identified based on its name, design, or a signaturemove. In some instances, a name may contain a combination of all thefeatures above (Kotler &amp Armstrong, 2006). The customers canidentify a particular brand through various ways. It can be in theform of quality, packaging, and benefits that can be derived from thecommodity (Kotler &amp Armstrong, 2006). For a good to be considereda global brand, it should be able to bypass its origin and maintainthe same values in spite of the country where the merchandise isbeing sold (Kotler &amp Armstrong, 2006). The global brands areknown to keep the same quality, and at times prices, of theircommodities.

Globalpositioning will determine the existence of an organization in themarketplace (Kotler &amp Armstrong, 2006). However, for a businessto attain the expected level of growth in the economy, it will benecessary to develop a marketing mix that would enable it to gainaccess to all the required market bases. The product must meet thequality standards that are associated with the global brands (Cateoraet al., 2013). In most instances, differentiation is used todetermine the performances of the global brand. Despite the existenceof similarities regarding the industries in which companies operate,each will go to greater lengths to ensure that they have acompetitive advantage (Holt, 2004). The bases of the positionstrategies in the organization must incorporate the marketing mixvariables of price, promotion, place and product. The efficientutilization of such procedures will give a business a competitiveedge and increase its profitability thereby enabling to survive theeconomic situations that may arise within the business environment(Holt, 2004).

Criteriafor Product Design Decisions

The behavioralpatterns among consumers are known to vary considerably depending ona series of reasons. The existence of different cultures, therefore,means that products should be designed to suit the needs to aspecific society (Cateora et al., 2013). This has led to theemergence of different models each aimed at ensuring that the tastesand preference of the clientele are catered for. This has meant thatsimilar products are marketed under various trademarks across theworld with distinct logos, flavors, logos and packaging (Morris,2009).

A primary examplein the differing needs depending on the cultural practices andbeliefs is the coffee product. Continental Europeans are known fortheir love of strong dark coffee. The same product in the UnitedStates will be sold as a milder weaker cup of coffee (Morris, 2009).Additionally, the demand of the Asian market may be different to thatof the African with the latter being significantly different from theEuropean market. Consider the in the some of the European countrieswhere eating of frogs is allowed and discussed a regular activity(Morris, 2009). However, African and Asian nations are forbidden bythe respective cultures and religious beliefs. This means that abusiness organization must be able to integrate the varying needs andideas when designing a product for the market (Cateora et al., 2013).This is specially relevant to firms that move from one nation to theother or those that are engaging in aggressive expansion practices(Doole &amp Lowe, 2008).

For thoseconcerned with research, product design is defined as the processcreating and developing new products from an original or existingcommodity in the market (Doole &amp Lowe, 2008). Such changesrequire the opinions of the clients in order to ensure that the newproducts will be needed in the market (Morris, 2009). One of the mainreasons for product design is with a view to facilitate a combinationof science and technology into improving the quality of a product. Itmay also be implemented to enhance the quality of service, reduce thecosts of production and ultimately give a competitive advantage to afirm over other competitors in the market (Haron, 2016).

Various factors are taken into consideration in the product designdecisions. They include:


This is a criterion concerned with the kind of product design to meetthe needs of the market with regards to the population size and shape(Haron, 2016).


This is primarily based on the form of packaging to be adopted by thenew product in order to attract additional customers (Doole &ampLowe, 2008). This variable also includes the marketing and salesstrategies that will be adopted by the business organization (Haron,2016).


Economic value determines if the product is worth the price for whichan organization decides to charge for it. The value has to bedetermined for both the country of production and the external market(Haron, 2016).


A client is an individual that uses the product. The identificationof the target is considered as one of the major decisions that haveto be made by the global marketers (Haron, 2016).


Global brands are known for their quality and reliability of use(Haron, 2016). It is the duty of the international marketers todetermine whether a particular product meets the market standards andthe region for which they are meant to be supplied. It is also atthis stage that the global marketers determine whether the productswill be able to meet the needs of the target market (Haron, 2016).


Over the years, there has been increased advocacy relating toenvironmental conservation. It is, therefore, necessary to determinehow a product will influence the environment (Haron, 2016). Theglobal marketers are required to focus on the environment of thetarget market to establish the most appropriate design that is likelyto fit in the environment (Haron, 2016).


The global marketers also have the responsibility of ensuring thatthe products are safe for consumption and they will not have adversehealth effects on the consumers (Haron, 2016). The well-being of theclientele is given utmost importance in such scenarios (Haron, 2016).

Usabilityand Reliability

Every product must be able to fulfill the roles for which they weremanufactured. In this case, the global marketers must ensure that aproduct meets its primary purpose and that it can last for the periodthat it has been designed for (Haron, 2016).

GlobalBrands and Success

With the globalization of the business world, various global brandsare accessible to the market currently. These include McDonalds,Ford, Pepsi, HP, Microsoft, Amazon, Gillette, Apple, Mercedes – Benz,Blackberry, Nike, Google, Santander, and Kellogg (Haron, 2016). Thesuccess of such business organizations can be attributed to variousfactors such as responsiveness, protection, differentiation,presence, relevance.


This variable determines the ease with which business organizationscan respond to the needs of the market (Haron, 2016). Due to thedynamic nature of the business environment, there is a highlikelihood that scenarios may arise in which the products of thecompany are under threat. The company must be flexible enough toreact well to such changes. The changes may occur due to variationsin the socio-economic and social cultural trends within the globaland local markets as well as change tastes and preference of thecustomers (Haron, 2016). Brands are therefore working towards beingready to react to variations in the business environment byintegrating the latest technology in the production process.


This refers to the mechanism that has been put in place by businessorganizations to guarantee the integrity of their brands (Czinkota &ampA, 2007). In the case of the above-mentioned business entities,measures have been put in place to protect their products frommimicking and copying (Haron, 2016).


Differentiation is the measure of the degree to which consumersbelieve that an individual brand is different from others operatingin the same industry. A brand should, therefore, be able to carve outa market for its products (Haron, 2016).


This measure relates to the public opinion about a product. It alsodiscusses how ubiquitous the brand is considered to be (Czinkota &ampA, 2007). With the rise of social media sites, businesses can monitorthe public reaction towards their products and deal with any arisingissues before they are detrimental to the performance of the firm(Haron, 2016).


Relevance determines the level by which a brand can meet the specificneeds of the customers, their desires and decision criteria (Haron,2016).


From the analysis of the research questions provided earlier in thepaper, various conclusions can be made. It is evident that creativityis an essential component of most marketing procedures beingundertaken by business organizations. Through innovation, businessorganizations are identifying new ways to develop segmentation basis.Secondly, the allocation of resources in business is determined bythe marketing mix to be utilized. Even though the customer needs varyacross the board, effective positioning will enable the firm toidentify essential needs of the product market. Positioning should beintegrated into the strategic learning process to ensure that theprice, product, promotion and product variables of the marketing mixare utilized efficiently. This will make sure that the customer isoffered superior value by the business organizations.

With the constant movement of global marketers from one nation to theother, it is increasingly becoming important to have an efficientproduct design depending on the target market. The decision on themost appropriate design for the product must take into considerationthe cultural beliefs of the target market as well as the religious ofthose who are intended to use the product. Finally, the achievementof in the globally dynamic business environment depends on a seriesof variables such as the anticipating areas of growth, wideningproduct line, luxury, excellence, and value creation, and expandingthe customer base. These features are evident in most of the brandsthat have been able to position themselves as the leading firms intheir respective industries.


Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Amuah, H. (2013). The Role of Creativity in the Market SegmentationProcess and the Benefits of Strategic Global Positioning.  SSRNElectronic Journal&nbspMarch 2013 

Cateora, P. R., Gilly, M. C., &amp Graham, J. L.(2013).&nbspInternational marketing. New York: McGraw-HillIrwin.

Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

Czinkota, M. R., &amp A, R. I. (2007).&nbspInternationalmarketing. United States: Thompson.

Doole, I., &amp Lowe, R. (2008).&nbspInternational marketingstrategy: Analysis, development and implementation. London:Cengage Learning.

Haron AJ (2016) The Role of Innovation in the Segmentation Process. JAccount Mark 5: 150. doi:10.4172/2168-9601.1000150

Holt, D .B (2004). &quotHow Brands Become Icons: The Principles ofCultural Branding. Harvard MA:

Kotler, P and Armstrong (2006). Principles of Marketing, 11thedition. Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood

Morris, R. (2009). The Fundamentals of Product Design. USA: AVAPublishing.

Otuedon,M. (2016). The Role of Creativity in the Market SegmentationProcess: The Benefits of Having an Excellent Global BrandPositioning. International Journal of Economics, Commerce andManagement, Vol. IV, Issue 2, February 2016

Yankelovich D, Meer D (2006) Rediscovering Market Segmentation.Harvard Business Review 84: 122-131.