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Mental Health



Severalpeople value nursing as a career, and consider themselves successfulwhen hired in popular institutions without knowing the major rolethey are to partake. Often, they are not mentally set be helpful tothe patients to get healthy(King etal.,2013).Therefore, to achieve all the goals as a nurse, the King’sconceptual theory was developed to enable care practitioners insetting health goals with the patients, which results in apatient–nurse relationship towards good therapeutic outcomes. Theessay focuses on mental health regarding the King’s ConceptualSystem, and how it influences the goal attainment in nursing as acareer, its applications to Jane’s case, and how it changes thecareer plan of a nurse.

ConceptualSystems and their Examples

Accordingto King (2013), the concept concentration on these particular methodswas to improve nurse-patient relationship using the systems approachto come up with a successful framework. The term framework was usedsolely refer to the three interacting systems, which are thepersonal, interpersonal and society systems.

Firstly,personal systems entail individual thinking and feelings which leadto someone’s awareness and the idea of his/her survival, and whatand who he/she is in life(George etal.,2010).Additionally, they are essentials in understanding human beings as itcan be referred to concerning nurses’ views from personal goals andbeliefs(King etal.,2013). Anexample of this concept as summarized by King includes: personalperception of time, self, space and impacts on how individuals reactto objects or events in their lives. Subsequently, growth anddevelopment of a person through his/her lifespan involves changes instructure and functions of their bodies over time, thus, affectingtheir individual views of self.

Secondly,King(2013)asserted that the interpersonal system refers to interactions betweenindividuals as small as from two to four people, or a group ofpersons. It might be complex depending on the number of peopleinteracting, that is, the complexity increases if the number ofindividuals expands. Similarly, it is observable actions of two ormore personalities in common presence. Therefore, it highly portrayshow nurses interrelate with co-workers, and or patients, majorlynurse-patient relationship. Examples are: interaction, transactions,stress, communication, coping, and roles. Communication among nursesand the patients built a strong relationship which encouragespatient-nurse relationship either through verbal or non-verbal (Kingetal.,2013).

Lastly,the society system refers to how nurses relate with superiors,subordinates, co-workers, and the patients within the community andthe work environment at large as they share common goals and interest(George etal.,2010).It enables social interactions and relations as it developsstructural rules of actions, and how to maintain values through theintroduction of mechanisms regulating practices and roles. Socialsystem examples consist of an organization, power, status andauthority, control, and decision making (Georgeetal.,2010).King’s concept in dynamic interacting systems framework leads toattaining of goals hence Goal Attainment Theory.

SystemsInfluence in Goal Attainment.

ThroughKing’s interrelation systems framework of perception,communication, transaction, interaction, stress, role, self, time,space, and growth and development, the ideology of Goal AttainmentTheory was conceived. The theory enables the patient and the nursesto come together to work freely through cooperation as theycommunicate and make transactions while they make goals and work toachieve the set health goals (Kingetal.,2013).Subsequently, the nurse-patient relations built enhance positiveperception, judgment, action, and reaction upon one anothertherefore, a health goal established is achievable. Furthermore,George (2010) argued thatthrough the common purpose establishment and goal achieving,transactions lead to growth and development for the patients.Additionally, patients and nurse relation are further enhanced eitherthrough positive verbal or non-verbal communications in whichinformation is passed and interpreted by each member. Thus, eachindividual within the work environment or society are influencedpositively to take their roles actively in time and space.

TheoreticalFramework and Case Analysis

PersonalSystem Theory

Throughthe application of personal system theory in the case study, it isenvisaged that Jane’s perception was indigent because the way sheresponded to objects was not appealing. She did not accept herselfand her situation, lacking self-understanding, which made her shy andkeeping away from friends. Consequently, Jane did not have enoughtime with the parents immediately they got divorced, a situationwhich influenced her to be lonely and judgmental withoutunderstanding herself better. Through personal theory, it isdeducible that Jane’s life experience and life span changedgradually over time, influencing her perception of playing piano as ateenager, which she later stopped completely (Kingetal.,2013).

InterpersonalSystem Theory

Accordingto the case study, the nurse’s personal interaction is encouragingas Jane could express herself verbally with a lot of ease. Therefore,in conceptual system, the nurse encouraged communication, exercisingher role as she carried out her transactions, creating commonpresence between the two individuals. However, according to casestudy, Jane was stressed up to a point where she felt persecuted asshe interpreted events with a lot of negativity without referencereality. Similarly, she could not continue with her studies as shewas discouraged to take school activities due to stress (Kingetal.,2013).

GoalAttainment Theory

Accordingto the case study, the main essence of the theory which focuses oninteractions, communications, and transactions Jane and the nurseachieved.Thecase study revealed that Jane and nurse came together throughcommunication and interactions, where Jane expressed herself fully,which would definitely lead to the meeting of the set health goals(Kinget al., 2013).

Levine’sConservation Theory

Accordingto Abumaria(2015), Levineargued that when one is affected by a particular problem, he/sheshould develop adaptive measures regardless of the situation toconform changes effectively while using least effort as possible, andpreserving optimal function. Therefore, in the case study, Janeshould not have let her situation take control in whatever she usedto do, such playing piano and pursuing her studies. However, sheshould have been conservative, only developing some helpfulstrategies while using less effort expenditure to conserve herwholeness to accept the changes positively. In the case study, thenurse intervention is to maintain Jane’s fullness as Jane’sintegrity is abiding her and it is, therefore, the nurseresponsibility to help her defend and to seek realization (Abumariaetal.,2015).



Inthe case study, the theory will ensure the removal of unsanitaryconditions posing health risks to patients. Additionally, it willenhance proper installation of ventilations, light, warmth, effluvia,and noise besides reducing/preventing external factors that can leadto patient disruption when under treatment. Furthermore, a nurse willprovide thorough care through understanding the patient’s behaviorto assist in determining the difficulties experienced by the patientas in the case of Jane. Moreover, the nurse will maintain thewell-being by engaging his/her powers through environment control ofthe patient e.g. Jane’s environment can be controlled to enable herto accept her situations through the involvement of activities (e.g.playing piano) in her maintained environment(Fawcett etal.,2012).


Insummary, the theories mainly outline nurse-patient relationship thatcan lead to common understanding and goal setting through theinteraction framework systems. The theories further respond to thepatient’s external and internal environments through communication.Problems are discussed openly and the concerns on how to achievehealth goals well covered in the conceptual systems’ framework.Therefore, patients can be communicated to, and that enables them tounderstand themselves, hence, lessens their anxiety within theinternal environment, making them safer and comfortable.


Abumaria,I. M., Hastings‐Tolsma,M., &amp Sakraida, T. J. (2015). Levine`s conservation model: Aframework for advanced gerontology nursing practice. In&nbspNursingforum&nbsp(Vol.50, No. 3, pp. 179-188).

Fawcett,J., &amp Desanto-Madeya, S. (2012).&nbspContemporarynursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models andtheories.Philadelphia, U.S.: FA Davis.

George,J. B. (2010).&nbspNursingTheories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice, 6/e.New Jersey, U.S.: Prentice Hall.&nbsp

King,I. M. (2013). Conceptual System and Theory of GoalAttainment.&nbspNursingTheories: Pearson New International Edition: The Base forProfessional Nursing Practice,252.