• Uncategorized

NAZI MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS

0

NAZIMEDICAL EXPERIMENTS

Ithas been confirmed that Nazi Medical Experiments were conductedduring the period of World War II and the people who were behind thiswere the German physicians. According to the evaluation of theexperiments, they were very painful, and they were performed withoutany ethical consideration. Additionally, those who were exposed tothese experiments were the prisoners, and the research was conductedwithout their consent.1That implies that the researchers were taking advantage of peoplewith the belief and confidence that nothing would be done to them. Therefore, around the world, many people remember the Holocaust, andsome perceive it as an insult to the humanity. Similarly, many liveswere lost during the experiment, and that was not kind to mankind. The lives that were lost would have contributed significantly to thedevelopment of the world.

Moreover,in the society, doctors are people who are trusted with respect tolife issues, since they are healers and caregivers. Hence, the movethat was taken by the medical practitioners of the third Reich can bedescribed as deplorable, egregious, and disgraceful. Numerousmedical experiments were performed with the aim of advancing Germanmedicine, and the people who were used passed through a painfulexperience. To some extent, some of the experiments that wereperformed had several legitimate scientific purposes, but thetechniques that were utilized violated the principles of medicalethics. The following are some of the experiments that wereconducted Nuremberg, pharmaceutical, war-injury and racialexperiment.2The primary purpose of the research paper is to examine and discussthe experiments that Nazi’s conducted on the Jews during theHolocaust.

Racial-BasedExperiments

Thisexperiment was devised so that doctors would find a mechanism ofpreventing the offspring with genetic diseases, and it was introducedin the year 1933, July 14th. The move resulted in the sterilizationof more than 200,000 Germans, and the German physicians were in theforefront of sterilizations. Therefore, if the experiment was to beconfirmed successful, then it could be utilized to eradicate minorityrace within Germany. On the other hand, the Nazi’s were targetingto apply the method to the neighboring population so that they wouldextend their control.3

TheGerman physicians employed the following types of sterilizationnamely X-rays and injections, and the experiment that was conductedat Auschwitz, and was spearheaded by the air force physician known asdoctor Horst Schuman.4 Prisoners, both male and females, were organized into groups ofapproximately 30 people, and their testicles or the ovaries wereirradiated with X-rays, a process which was repeated for about twotimes a week. There was a variation of dosage and even aftersustaining serious burns and swelling, they were sent to work.However, sterilization aided by X-rays was not successful, and theyresorted to castration, which was considered time-efficient anddependable.5

Withinthe region of Auschwitz, more dangerous experiments were performed byDr. Josef Mengele, who became the chief physician in the year 1943.The primary objective of Mengele was to indicate how the Nordic racewas superior as far as research was concerned. His initial experimentthat he conducted involved young children who were obtained fromkindergarten. Mengele’s main focus was on children with adisability such as the twins, mentally challenged children, anddwarfs. The research that was conducted on these children was verytraumatic and painful, and these pupils were also hungry, but theyconstituted most of his subject.6 Children who were twins or crippled were set aside for theexperiment, and before it began, they were photographed. Additionally, there were plaster molds that were used to cast theirjaws and teeth, and prints were drawn from their feet and hands. Theinmates who were specialized in painting were responsible for makingdrawings of the various shapes of feet, head, nose, ears, and handsto be used for comparative analysis. At the end of the experiment,some of the subjects were killed so that further information could beobtained from their organs. They used phenol injections to killthese children so that they could continue with their experiments.There were certain specimens that were preserved, and they wereshipped to Berlin-Dahlem for further investigations.7

ExperimentRelated to War-Injury

InGermany, it was established that there were numerous kinds ofwar/injury-associated experiments that were conducted on the militarypersonnel. These experiments were performed at a location known asthe Dachau, with an objective to investigate how military staffs arelikely to survive various combat conditions. Various physicians,such as Siegfried Rugg and Hans Romberg,collaborated withPhysician Sigmund Rasher in performing an experiment in high altituderegions to find out how long people could withstand the loss of airpressure.8Therefore, for them to establish the findings of their experiment,they subjected prisoners to pressure chambers that represented whatis likely to happen at high altitudes areas. That experiment leftmany people with numerous injuries, and some died in the event. Whatwas being investigated by the experiment was the impact of airpressure to an air force personnel bailed out of an airplane. On theother hand, the experiment was conducted on hypothermia, which wasconsidered as a sharp drop in body temperature that is caused as aresult of extended exposure to cold conditions. Therefore, physiciansconducted what is known as the freezing experiment so that they couldfind treatment for the hypothermia. The procedure involved subjectingprisoners to tanks of ice, and they took one or more hours withinthose tanks. Some of the pre-conditions that were varied includewarming up their bodies in the process. They were no medicationsoffered to the people who were being used as specimen, for instance,they were not provided with painkillers. Some of the victims whowere used to conduct experiment were immersed in snow for severalhours. There were numerous experiments that were performed, forexample, some of the prisoners were forced to drink sea water, andthen they were monitored regarding how they responded to differenttypes of water.9

TestsConducted on Pharmaceuticals

InGermany, there are several camps that were concentrated with people,such as the Neuengamme, Buchenwald, Natzweiler, Dachau, andSachsenhausen those who were found in these camps were used to testdifferent kinds of pharmaceuticals. Some of the contagious diseasessuch as yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoidfever and infectious hepatitis, some of the pharmaceutical compoundswere tried to fight them. Additionally, there are certain drugs thatare discovered recently such as sulfa drugs, but they had been testedin some camp such as Ravensbrueck. During the Holocaust, physicianswere attempting to test antidote and for them to realize that theysubjected prisoners to poisonous gasses. While in Ravensbrueck, thephysicians managed to come up with different techniques of handlingwar wounds and fractures. Those methods were developed after the legsof inmates were physically broken or amputated and the physiciansdevised methods of transplanting them again.10

Thephysicians were at freedom to perform anything that they needed onthe human being since there were no laws restricting their actions.That made them violate the rights of the prisoners, and they actedwithout considering the health impact they were causing to thepeople. Similarly, medical ethics was something that was not adheredto when performing the experiments and that led to the death of manypeople.11 The experiments that were performed at the camp were numerous and intotal they were about 70 live experiments that were conducted on thehuman being. Those experiments constituted research programs thathave been proposed, and they were supposed to be conducted within thecamps. The numbers of prisoners involved in the research were about7,000, and the number of physicians conducted the research were 200in total. These physicians, their primary working are was in thecamp, and they were also provided with tight security as theyperformed the experiments. These physicians were working in closecollaboration with other medical professionals all over the worldsuch as medical institutes, universities, and leading laboratories. This linking assisted in conducting a further experiment that wasshipped to these locations to enhance their findings. Similarly, theleading German medical institutes were also involved in the furtherexamination of the specimen. 12

Thereare several medical experiments that have been conducted on human,but it is considered as unethical practice and must be avoided at allcost. The experiment that was performed during the Holocaust was anexperiment of its kind since it involved human kind. As a resultthat moves lead to many physicians tried, for instance, some weresubjected to capital punishment, long-term imprisonment and otherswere acquitted. Some of the famous physicians managed to escape suchas Mengele and Schumann while others like Clauberg were tried in theSoviet Union. 13

OtherMinor Experiments

Sunlamp was an experiment that was also conducted on the prisoners andit entails subjecting the victims under the sun lamps that wereextremely hot. With this high temperature, the skin of the victimswas burned and other also developed internal complications. One ofthe victims in the camp who was also a homosexual was subjected tothis condition repeatedly. After that, he was cooled until he becomeunconscious and the heat was renewed gained until he reaches a pointwhere he releases sweat like water from his body.The young mansuccumbed to heat one evening after numerous tests had been conductedon him. Similarly, another experiment that was conducted in the campis known as the internal irrigation. Some of the victims who havebeen subjected to cold temperatures and they had frozen qualified forthe internal irrigation.14 This type of internal irrigation was conducted on the stomach,intestines and the balder. This experiment involved heating water upto a certain temperature then it was forcefully directed inside thestomach, intestines and bladder of the victims. That is what wasreferred to as the internal irrigation, and it was a painfulexperience since other died in the process of the experiment whileother sustained internal injuries. That experiment was verydangerous water under such temperatures is likely to interfere withall biological process of a human being. 15

Additionally,most of the experiments that were performed at various camps thatwere located in Germany were all dangerous, and almost all of themlead to death. Interestingly, even the physicians who were performingthe experiment knew exactly that they were exposing those prisonersto death. Another experiment was known as the hot bath it involvestaking a shower with hot water, and it was meant to understand howthe skin adapts to increased temperatures. Therefore, the victimswere taken then placed in a warm water bath, and someone regulatedthe temperatures of the water.16Some of the prisoners were placed in water where the temperatureswere increased slowly until it reaches the maximum temperatures. Onthe other hand, other victims were exposed to warm water where thetemperature was increased suddenly. Victims who were subjected tosudden increased in temperatures could not survive they died due toshock. Alternatively, those who were subjected to the temperaturesthat were increased slowly sustained several burns and they laterdied. 17

Noneof the experiment that was conducted during the period of holocaustfollowed the ethical producers are required by law. Similarly,conducted the experiment was not a bad idea, but they could have usedother specimen rather than human being. The also conducted anexperiment known as the “warming by the body heat.” Thephysicians took prisoners, who have been subjected to a coldcondition, and they have frozen then a woman would be brought to warmup the frozen men. The main objective that they wanted to realize bythis experiment is how they can handle frozen soldiers. Therefore,they established that they could either use warm water or they canuse women to warm frozen men. As a result, warming by body heatshows some significant result, but they concluded that warm waterbath was the best to restore the heat a cold person. 18

Conclusion

Nazimedical experiments have been confirmed that they were conductedduring the period of World War II and the people who were behind thiswere the German physicians. Similarly, Racial based experiments weredevised so that they would find a mechanism of preventing theoffspring with genetically diseases and it was devised on 1933, July14th. Additionally, In Germany, it was established that there werenumerous kinds of war injury-associated experiments that wereconducted on the military personnel. These experiments were performedat a location known as the Dachau with an objective to investigatehow military staffs are likely to survive various combat conditions.Moreover, In Germany, there are several camps that were concentratedwith people such as the Neuengamme, Buchenwald, Natzweiler, Dachau,and Sachsenhausen, those who were found in these camps were used totest different kinds of pharmaceuticals. Other experiments that wereconducted in those camps include warming by body heat, hot bath,internal irrigation, sun lamp among others.

Bibliography

Bansal,Reetika. &quotMedical Experiments on Human Beings and Human Rights.&quotGLOBALJOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH1, no. 2 (2016): 74-81.

Jabłoński,Robert, Joanna Rosińczuk, Jerzy Leszek, Izabella Uchmanowicz, andBernard Panaszek. &quotThe progressive nature of concentration campsyndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps–Not justhistory, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.&quotJournalof psychiatric research75 (2016): 1-6.

Lidz,Charles W. &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical MedicalResearch.&quot (2015).

Loewenau,Aleksandra, and Paul J. Weindling. &quotNazi Medical Research inNeuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.&quotCanadianBulletin of Medical History33, no. 2 (2016): 418-446.

Löwy,Ilana. &quotLudwik Fleck On Medical Experiments on Human Beings.&quotScience,Technology &amp Human Values(2015): 0162243915610004.

1 . Ilana Löwy, &quotLudwik Fleck On Medical Experiments on Human Beings.&quot Science, Technology &amp Human Values (2015): 0162243915610004.

2 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

3 . Ilana Löwy, &quotLudwik Fleck On Medical Experiments on Human Beings.&quot Science, Technology &amp Human Values (2015): 0162243915610004.

4 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

5 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

6 . Ilana Löwy, &quotLudwik Fleck On Medical Experiments on Human Beings.&quot Science, Technology &amp Human Values (2015): 0162243915610004.

7 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

8 . Aleksandra Loewenau, and Paul J. Weindling, &quotNazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.&quot Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 33, no. 2 (2016): 418-446.

9 . Reetika Bansal, &quotMedical Experiments on Human Beings and Human Rights.&quot GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 1, no. 2 (2016): 74-81.

10 . Jabłoński Robert, Joanna Rosińczuk, Jerzy Leszek, Izabella Uchmanowicz, and Bernard Panaszek, &quotThe progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps–Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.&quot Journal of psychiatric research 75 (2016): 1-6.

11 . Ibid., 5

12 . Reetika Bansal, &quotMedical Experiments on Human Beings and Human Rights.&quot GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 1, no. 2 (2016): 74-81.

13 . Ibid., 75

14 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

15 . Reetika Bansal, &quotMedical Experiments on Human Beings and Human Rights.&quot GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 1, no. 2 (2016): 74-81.

16 . Charles W Lidz, &quotDark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research.&quot (2015).

17 . Jabłoński Robert, Joanna Rosińczuk, Jerzy Leszek, Izabella Uchmanowicz, and Bernard Panaszek, &quotThe progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps–Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.&quot Journal of psychiatric research 75 (2016): 1-6.

18 . Reetika Bansal, &quotMedical Experiments on Human Beings and Human Rights.&quot GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 1, no. 2 (2016): 74-81.