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Part A CRJ 105

CRIMINAL JUSTICE 10

PartA

CRJ105

CRIMEAND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR

MEREDITHBRASCA

PENNYPOUVOIR

ASSIGNMENT2: FORMAL OUTLINE

    1. Purpose of the study

      1. Explore correlation between social disorganization and differential association

    2. Research Aims

      1. To show social disorganization and differential association contribute to domestic violence and increasing number of women in the criminal justice system

    3. Thesis Statement

      1. Social disorganization and differential association not only contribute to domestic violence but also increases the number of women in the criminal justice system

  1. Body

    1. Literature Review

      1. Definition of Key concept and theories

        1. Social Disorganization Theory

          1. Persistence in your social life

          2. Consistency in your social life

          3. Mutuality in your social life

          4. Predictability in your social life

          5. Control of violence in your social life.

          6. Economic stability in your social life

        1. Differential Association Theory

          1. How is domestic violence learned

          2. Competing theories

          3. Women participation in the criminal justice

        2. Domestic Violence

          1. Prevalence of domestic violence

          2. Primary victims of violence

          3. Relationship with Social disorganization and different association theory

          4. Remedies of domestic violence

        3. of Literature review

          1. Link between domestic violence and social disorganization theory

          2. Link between domestic violence and different association theory

          3. Victims and offenders domestic violence overlap

          4. Linking domestic violence overlap with the principal concepts

    1. Data Analysis

      1. Hypothesis testing

        1. Is there a positive correlation between social disorganization and domestic violence?

        2. What is the relationship between the different association and domestic violence?

        3. What is the relationship between social disorganization and differential association?

  1. Conclusion

    1. Concluding statement

      1. Highlighting findings

      2. Comparison between findings and literature review

      3. Thesis rewording

    2. Recommendations

  2. References

  3. Appendices

PartB

CRJ105

CRIMEAND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR

MEREDITHBRASCA

PENNYPOUVOIR

ASSIGNMENT2: Annotated Bibliography

Benson,M., Wooldredge, J., Thistlethwaite, A., &amp Fox, G. (2004). TheCorrelation between Race and Domestic Violence is Confounded withCommunity Context. SocialProblems,51(3),326-342.

Benson,Wooldredge, Thistlethwaite, and Fox (2004) examine the relationshipbetween race and domestic violence. The paper asks a veryprovocatively question, which is why Black Americans appear to bemore violent than whites. A review of data confirmed that AfricanAmericans are more likely to exercise domestic violence. However, bydrawing insights from social disorganization theory, Benson et al.,(2004) proves that domestic violence is not precipitated by race butrather it is provoked by the social surrounding of the victim and theoffender. Using the 1990 US census and data from the National Surveyof Families and Household, Benson et al., (2004) established thatdomestic violence is likely to be high among blacks who live in thesocially disorganized environment. They also established that blackswho live in the same ecological environment, as whites are highlyunlikely to exercise any forms of violence. The study serves tohighlight that social strain can precipitate domestic violence.Benson et al., (2004) are relevant to the proposed study because itexamines the relationship between social disorganization and domesticviolence critically.

Choi,K. (2009). Tackling Domestic Violence in the UK: Persistent Problems.InternationalArea Studies Review,12(1),17-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/223386590901200103

Asthe name suggest, this study highlights the problem associated withdealing with domestic violence. The paper argues that laws, policies,and legal framework adopted to handle domestic violence, particularlyin the UK, have not been effective. According to Choi (2009), thepolicies and framework adopted to tackle the violence are not basedon proper attitudes and beliefs. Also, they appear not to fullyunderstand on an individual basis, each victim of domestic violenceand hence, provide appropriate protection. The paper also argues thatdomestic violence is an indication of gender inequality. Women arethe primary victims of domestic violence because they do not enjoythe same opportunities and economic benefits that their malecounterparts enjoy. The paper is going to be analyzed with a goal ofestablishing the measure that should be used to tackle domesticviolence. This measure will be examined further and if foundappropriate is going to be included as a recommendation in theproposed research.

Morgan,A., &amp Chadwick, H., (2009). Key Issues in Domestic Violence.ResearchIn Practice, Australian Institute of Criminology, 1-11.

Morganand Chadwick (2009) define domestic violence and highlight thedifferent forms of violence. The authors also provide crucialinformation on prevalence, impact of domestic violence and victims ofdomestic violence. The study recognized that both men and womensuffer from domestic violence. Men have reported being physical,emotionally, and sexually abuse by their spouses. The paper does notdirectly link differential association and social disorganizationtheory to domestic violence. It studies domestic violence as well asanalyze the characteristics of the offenders and victims. Theevidence brought forward about the features of the criminals andvictims of domestic violence somewhat connects social disorganizationand differential association theory with domestic violence. Evenwithout explicitly mentioning these theories, it appears that mostvictims of domestic violence are a social disadvantage. Also, theycome from communities that have a high record of social, domesticviolence, implying social disorganization and differentialassociation may be attributed to the domestic violence experienced inthe community.

Muftic,L., Finn, M., &amp Marsh, E. (2012). The Victim-Offender Overlap,Intimate Partner Violence, and Sex: Assessing Differences AmongVictims, Offenders, and Victim-Offenders. Crime&amp Delinquency,61(7),899-926.

Muftic,Finn, and Marsh (2012) use official police data to study the overlapbetween offenders of domestic violence and victims. The researcherscategorized their subject into four main groups namely persistentoffenders, victim-offenders, victims, and resistant offenders. Theythen focused on examining the victim-offenders. This group comprisedof an individual who switches either from being offenders to becomevictims or from victims to become offenders. According to the study,victims were at higher risks of becoming offenders, and surprisingly,even offenders were at greater risk of becoming victims. Though theresearchers do not focus on differential association or socialdisorganization theory, there is evidence to suggest domesticviolence is positively correlated with these two theories. The factthat victims can switch to become offenders in prove differentialassociation may cause domestic violence. Also, victims who transformto become offenders had in one way or another interacted with thesocial justice system thus acquiring a violent behavior.

Rahmatian,A. (2009). Breaking Down the Social Learning of Domestic violence.IranianJournal of Psychiatric and Behavioral Sciences, 3(1), 62-66

Rahmatian(2009) new studies focus on establishing why domestic violenceoccurs. Researchers argue that domestic violence can be explainedusing various social learning theories. They strongly argue thatdomestic violence is not caused by substance abuse, depression,chemical imbalance, or other factors cited by past studies. Instead,they suggested that domestic violence is a learned behavior. Thestudy confirmed the differential association theory by establishingthat people who are exposed to domestic violence in the past arelikely to exercise or experience domestic violence in future. Interestingly, the study established that the offender does notnecessary have to be the one who experienced domestic violence.Domestic violence was observed even in instances whereby only thevictim had experience violence in the past. Establishing how aprevious victim of domestic violence can influence his or her currentspouse to become violent is an issue worth pursuing.

Wu, N., &amp Kolze, A.(2013). Social disorganization theory and domestic violence inpost-Katrina new Orleans. AmericanPublic Health Association, 7-23.

Wuand Kolze (2013) focus is on domestic violence. Unlike most studieswhose focus is on the behavior of the offender, or rather, theperpetrator of the domestic violence, this paper aims to establishhow social and environmental factors contribute to domestic violence.The paper particularly uses social disorganization theory to studythe link between domestic violence and social-environmental factors.Using data from the New Orleans Police Department, the authorsestablished a link between domestic violence and social,environmental factors. They, therefore, came up with a conclusionthat addressing social-environmental factors such as socioeconomicinequality, housing, and residential instability could greatly reducedomestic violence. The paper established that there is a positivecorrelation between domestic violence and social disorganization.Therefore, enhancing community social organization will reducedomestic violence. The paper is relevant because it supports theworking thesis of the proposed research paper. It will assist inrefining the hypothesis that is going to be tested.

References

Benson,M., Wooldredge, J., Thistlethwaite, A., &amp Fox, G. (2004). TheCorrelation between Race and Domestic Violence is Confounded withCommunity Context. SocialProblems,51(3),326-342.

Choi,K. (2009). Tackling Domestic Violence in UK: Persistent Problems.InternationalArea Studies Review,12(1),17-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/223386590901200103

Morgan,A., &amp Chadwick, H., (2009). Key Issues in Domestic Violence.ResearchIn Practice, Australian Institute of Criminology, 1-11.

Muftic,L., Finn, M., &amp Marsh, E. (2012). The Victim-Offender Overlap,Intimate Partner Violence, and Sex: Assessing Differences AmongVictims, Offenders, and Victim-Offenders. Crime&amp Delinquency,61(7),899-926.

Rahmatian,A. (2009). Breaking Down the Social Learning of Domestic violence.IranianJournal of Psychiatric and Behavioral Sciences, 3(1), 62-66

Wu,N., &amp Kolze, A. (2013). Social disorganization theory anddomestic violence in post-Katrina new Orleans. AmericanPublic Health Association, 7-23.