• Uncategorized

PICO PICO

PICO

PICO

Inthis paper, the significance of music to the people who have dementiais explored. Several music-based interventions exist for individualswith dementia. These interventions include music therapy, singingwhile in home groups and even listening to music (Ridder, 2016). Theimmense psychological benefits make the method preferable. Musicremains one of the best forms of therapy that is widely recognizedand preferred. Music is enjoyable to all and is preferred especiallyfor the individuals who have severe dementia.

Dementiarefers to a syndrome that ends up in decline in the cognitiveoperation of an individual (Moyle et al., 2011). Dementia as acondition is usually deteriorating and often is linked to old age asmuch as it is only seen among other people in the other age brackets.Dementia is known to have certain characteristics one of them beingthe behavioral disturbances (Ridder, 2016).

Toassess the current literature on the topic, a PICOT question wasformulated. When using the PICO framework, it was very critical forthe researcher to comprehend the background of the study as well asthe foreground questions (Doody &amp Bailey, 2016).

Upongetting the answer to this question, the researcher will be able tounderstand the need of using music to treat people with dementia(Doody &amp Bailey, 2016). Previously, there are pharmacologicalmethods that were applied in treating people with dementia, butnumerous ethical questions were raised concerning the methods. Byanswering the question formulated through the PICO framework, thepractitioners in the field will be accepting and acknowledging theuse of music as a therapeutic for people with dementia. In thisstudy, the Stetler model was used as a guide to help in assessing andevaluation of the current evidence within literature (Schaffer,Sandau &amp Diedrick, 2013).

SearchMethodology

Asnoted in the first phase of Stetler model, the subject of inquiry wasfirst identified as mentioned in the parts above. Further, thecontext, the purpose and the different sources of evidence wereconsidered by coming up with a given search criteria.

Whendoing the search, the main terms that were used reflected the topic.The search that was carried out was to some degree limited, as theresults that were found were largely the single low-level studies.After reviewing some of the readings on the best manner to search andthe best strategies to apply when searching, this search concentratedmainly on the CINAHL. While undertaking this research, relevant termswere the point of concentration. In doing the search, some of theprimary and key words were used, and most of the words were got fromthe PICO question. Some of the primary words applied includedementia pharmacological methods challenging behavior and musictherapy. While doing this search, different spelling and wordscombinations were explored.

Toget more information, the search concentrated on databases such asProQuest, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar. Given that thedatabases produced results that were not refined, the searchproceeded just to concentrate on using the CINAHL given that it wouldbe necessary to help narrow down to the essential and applicablematerials.

Duringthe search, the words were truncated, and the asterisk was used awildcard character. The researchers used the MeSH trees and thesaurusfor the non-pharmacological interventions. When doing the search fromCINAHL databases, a total of 201 results were got. The search wasstrictly limited to the research papers that were not five yearsolder. Having this restricted the usable papers got to 113. Theresearch papers obtained were largely preferred because they were ofgood quality and they were applicable as required.

Thesearch proceeded to limit the publications to those that werepublished in English as a language, and only 67 papers were obtained.The papers were restricted to those published to in Europe. This gavea result of 10 papers. The studies that were got were then graded asdefined by the NHMRC’s levels of evidence. Evidently, the studiesthat were used in the process were strongly assessed against aninclusion/ exclusion criteria.

LiteratureReview

Ina study done by McDermott, Orrell and Ridder (2014) investigating thecriticalness of music for individuals with dementia, the paperfocused for the most part on the viewpoints of people with dementia,the family carers, the staff and the music therapists. This studyconcurs that despite the fact that the music-based intercessions isbroadly known in dementia mind, restricted information still existson how and why individuals with dementia observe music to be gainfulfor their prosperity. The study that was done was qualitative innature. This study was produced to give the comprehension of themusical encounters of individuals with dementia and get theopportunity to comprehend the quintessence of music in their lives.

Thestudy was done among the care home inhabitants who have dementia andtheir families, the day doctor`s facility customers with dementia andthe staff in the care home and among the music therapists. Thediscoveries emerging from the topical examination were researched tocomprehend the psychosocial variables with the aim of thinking of ahypothetical model of music in dementia.

Fromthe outcomes that were acquired in this study, six principle subjectsdeveloped. A portion of the subjects incorporated the nearbyconnections that emerge between music, the personality of people andthe life occasions. Likewise, the study investigated the importanceof relationship working through music. From the model, it rose thatmusic is exceptionally noteworthy in supporting the individualpsychology of people with dementia and the social psychology of thecare home environment.

Fromthe study, the authorr reasoned that the impacts of music go past thedecrease of behavioral and psychological signs. The inclination ofpeople on music is safeguarded all through the procedure of dementia.The paper advocates that keeping pace with the musical andinterpersonal connection will be exceptionally basic in esteemingindividuals and keeping up the quality of life.

Ina study done by McDermott et al., (2013) a survey of music therapy indementia is explored. For quite a while, the vast majority of thesurveys on music therapy for people with dementia was confined toonly the assessment of whether the strategy is successful. Inferablefrom this, there has been a need a basic evaluation of the writing tocomprehend the like activities of music therapy. In this paper, theauthors apply the narrative framework to help in comprehending theconfirmation for viability and give knowledge into the model ofactivity. In this study, the structure that is connected is comprisedof four components. The components incorporate the improvement ofhypothesis, blend of discoveries and finding the connections betweenthe studies and evaluation of the vigor of the synthesis.

Theoutcomes that rise up out of this study was applicable were 263 innumber. Eighteen studies were found to meet the set standards. Fromthis, three different sorts of examinations turned out. Out of thethree, eight of the studies investigated the behavioral andpsychological sections the other five studies discovered theprogressions in hormonal and physiological viewpoints and fiveconcentrates predominantly focused on social and social parts ofmusic therapy. The musical intercessions in the studies were variousin nature however, singing stayed as a standout amongst the mostbasic specialists for change. The study achieved a conclusion thatthere was proof for a diminishment in behavioral aggravation and thiswas steady all through the study. Regardless, the study could notbuild up top-notch longitudinal studies that demonstrated the longrun significances of music therapy. The study prescribes that musictherapy concentrates on done in future need to think of ahypothetical model which can incorporate better-engaged resultmeasures and talk about the outcomes that can encourage the change ofpeople with dementia welfare.

Astudy done by Robb, Carpenter &amp Burns (2011) studied theguidelines that are applicable for music-based interventions amongindividuals with dementia. As noted by this author, the music-basedinterventions are used to help in addressing most of the problemsthat individuals encounter in their lives. For transparency to beassured, some of the standards for reporting music-basedinterventions are set. This study recommends that certain sevencomponents must be included. The seven components to be included areintervention theory, the content, treatment fidelity, unit delivery,and setting. Through having proper guidelines, the efficacy ofmusic-based interventions emerges.

Todecide the viability of music in the treatment of people withdementia, Ueda et al., (2013) did a study on the impacts of musictreatment on behavioral and psychological side effects of dementia.This was a methodical audit and meta-investigation. The studyrecognizes that there are behavioral and psychological side effectsof dementia (BPSD) which remains as a typical issue for both thepatients and the care-givers. Despite the fact that the musictreatment is dealt with as a non-pharmacological mediation whileoverseeing BPSD. To some degree, this examination provides reason tofeel ambiguous about the viability of the technique and states thatit stays hazy. In this study, the creators focused on exploring theimpacts of music treatment on BPSD. While doing the study, irregularcontrolled trials were connected and partner contemplates andmeta-examination utilizing the standard mean differences (SMD). Theoutcomes that were got demonstrated that music therapy affectedtension and almost no impact on behavioral indications. Theexploration confirms that music-treatment is powerful in theadministration of BPSD.

Ina study done by Ridder et al., (2013), music treatment is examined asa method for lessening agitation levels in people with dementia. Thisstudy is found on the preface that music treatment has been powerfulin treating agitation in dementia mind however inquiries and issueswere raised concerning the techniques. The study largely focused onindividuals who had moderate or severe dementia and those living innursing homes. While carrying out this study, 42 participants wereinvolved, and the study was done over a period of six weeks. Theoutcome measures that were incorporated included agitation, lifequality, and medication. The results from this study affirmed thatdisruption of agitation increased when carrying out the standard careand declined when executing music therapy. The study reaches aconclusion that over the six weeks period, there is a reduction inagitation disruptiveness when music therapy is applied. Nonetheless,the positive indications as it relates to agitation frequency andlife quality demands that more research is carried out in futureusing a larger sample.

Conclusion

Fromthe analysis of the articles in this paper, music therapy iseffective in treating individuals with dementia. Music has widelybeen known to have effects on the agitation and anxiety of peopleeven though the effect has been termed as insignificant amongindividuals with dementia. Other findings also note that apart fromreducing the agitation, music plays a critical role in caresituations hence leading to higher degree of compliance in regards tothe individuals with dementia. The analysis affirms that music is oneof the effective ways of treating BPSD. The efficacy of the method isseen given that it helps in reducing the aggressive behaviors ofindividuals and anxiety while at the same time leading to bettermoods and quality of life in patients with dementia. In phase VI andV of the Stetler Model, development of a plan to implement theevidence into practice and evaluate the implementation processoccurs. Before having these steps, there is need to carry out moreresearch to help determine the efficacy of music as an interventionin the treatment of people with dementia.

References

Doody,O., &amp Bailey, M. E. (2016). Setting a research question, aim andobjective.&nbspNurseresearcher,&nbsp23(4),19-23.

McDermott,O., Crellin, N., Ridder, H. M., &amp Orrell, M. (2013). Musictherapy in dementia: a narrative synthesis systematicreview.&nbspInternationaljournal of geriatric psychiatry,&nbsp28(8),781-794.

McDermott,O., Orrell, M., &amp Ridder, H. M. (2014). The importance of musicfor people with dementia: the perspectives of people with dementia,family carers, staff and music therapists.&nbspAging&amp mental health,&nbsp18(6),706-716.

Moyle,W., Venturto, L., Griffiths, S., Grimbeek, P., McAllister, M.,Oxlade, D., &amp Murfield, J. (2011). Factors influencing quality oflife for people with dementia: a qualitative perspective.&nbspAging&amp Mental Health,&nbsp15(8),970-977.

Ridder,H. M. O., Stige, B., Qvale, L. G., &amp Gold, C. (2013). Individualmusic therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomizedcontrolled trial.&nbspAging&amp mental health,&nbsp17(6),667-678.

Ridder,H. M. (2016). The Future of Music Therapy for Persons with DementiaHanne Mette Ridder.&nbspEnvisioningthe Future of Music Therapy,87.

Robb,S. L., Carpenter, J. S., &amp Burns, D. S. (2011). Reportingguidelines for music-based interventions.&nbspJournalof health psychology,&nbsp16(2),342-352.

Schaffer,M. A., Sandau, K. E., &amp Diedrick, L. (2013). Evidence‐basedpractice models for organizational change: overview and practicalapplications.&nbspJournalof advanced nursing,&nbsp69(5),1197-1209.

Ueda,T., Suzukamo, Y., Sato, M., &amp Izumi, S. I. (2013). Effects ofmusic therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: asystematic review and meta-analysis.&nbspAgeingresearch reviews,&nbsp12(2),628-641.