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Postmodern Approaches





Postmodernismis a general term used to represent an era in the Western philosophythat was oriented to art, architecture, literature, philosophy,cultural and literary criticism, as well as fiction. Essentially, thepostmodern period began in the 1960’s, but the term “postmodernism”was first coined in the 1970’s. Postmodernism art tends to defy allthat is known to be conventional by nature, since it isanti-authoritarian and draws no boundaries between art and dailylife.

Postmodernismis believed to have begun with the pop culture and was a reaction incontradiction to modernism, which was an ideal visualization ofhumanity, culture and a belief in development. Modernism was born outof reason and ideals while postmodernism was based on suspicion andcynicism of reason.


Socialconstructionism attempts to explain the nature of reality. The theoryis centered on the concept that humans vindicate their knowledge bymaking representations of the social world and share these replicasthrough language. This only means that a social construct is aconnotation or an idea that may be obvious and natural to those whoaccept it. However, it may or might not represent what the realityis, thus, largely remaining a creation of a given faction of people(Wang, 2016).

Varyingwith the constructionist perspective, social construction is as aresult of choices made by human beings rather than laws of naturethat are supposed to be immutable. The theory of socialconstructionism needs to be thoroughly understood so that thevalidity and quality of debates and arguments surrounding its use canbe adequately evaluated (Wang, 2016).

NarrativeTherapy Techniques

Narrativetherapy was advanced forth by Michael White and David Epston. Theassumption of narrative therapy is that everybody has a story aboutthemselves that is a determinant of how they view the world,themselves, and their current situation. This story that defines aperson is typically fundamental to the approach an individual takesin his way of life (Combs &amp Freedman, 2012). Thus, it is thenarrative therapist’s job to fully understand this story andanalyze it in all perspectives before expounding on it to help apatient.

Thistype of technique is attractive because it does not view the personas the issue, but sees the problem as the challenge and that theindividual and the problem are only in a relationship. This method ofhumanizing the issue and separating it from the person is known asexternalization (Combs &amp Freedman, 2012). Through this process,the problem is seen as something affecting the person rather thanbeing part of the individual.

SolutionFocused Brief Therapy

Thistype of therapy was advanced forth by Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) andSteve de Shazer (1940-2005). This kind of treatment is solutionoriented just like its name suggests. It emphasizes on answers ratherthan the problems that made the individual to pursue treatment.However, while it is important to note that present problems and pastcauses are acknowledged, usually an individual’s current resourcesand future hopes are the ones that are predominantly explored.

Themiracle question method is the most attractive technique because itseffects are long lasting. The approach helps the individual to shiftfocus from what they cannot achieve and imagine how different theirlife could be if a miracle occurred (Ciuffardi, Scavelli &ampLeonardi, 2013). This technique takes the mind of the individual awayfrom the problem and helps them focus on their life, as if the issuewas nonexistent.


Ciuffardi,G., Scavelli, S., &amp Leonardi, A. (2013). Solution-Focused BriefTherapy in

Combinationwith Fantasy and Creative Language in Working with Children: A Brief

Report.InternationalJournal of Solution-Focused Practices,1(1), 44-51.


Combs,G. &amp Freedman, J. (2012). Narrative, Poststructuralism, andSocial Justice: Current

Practicesin Narrative Therapy. TheCounseling Psychologist,40(7), 1033-1060.


Wang,B. (2016). The social and historical construction of socialconstructionism: Prof. KJ

Gergenin dialogue. Culture&amp Psychology.