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Premack Principle

PremackPrinciple

Killeen,R.P. (2014). Pavlov + Skinner = Premack. InternationalJournal of Comparative psychology,27 (4) 544-568.

Thisarticle discusses the premack principle in relation to thecombination of Pavlov’s and Skinner’s developments. According tothe resource, Premack (1959, 1965, and 1971) developments helped inthe creation of the Premackian conditioning into a principle. Indifferent seminal experiments, Premack and colleagues portrayed thatthe reinforcing relation amid two actions such as drinking andwheel-running can be established as well as reversed throughdifferential histories of availability of the actions. Furthermore,the author argues that the Premack principle holds that variants ofan action as well as action-sequence which shorten the trajectory arelearned and reinforced (Killeen, 2014).

JeremyA. S., Dixie, L. T., David, R. B., Eugene, C. F., &amp Hollie, A. R.(2012). “A Review of Different Behavior Modification StrategiesDesigned to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children.” Journalof Obesity,doi:10.1155/2012/379215.

Purposeof the Study

Thestudy focused on reviewing randomized controlled trials which haveintegrated strategies for mitigating sedentary behaviors in kids agedbetween 0 and 18 years. The emphasis was on specific behaviormodification approaches that can be utilized in the reduction ofsedentary screen behaviors.

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis of the study is to investigate whether the reduction ofsedentary screen behaviors prevents and treats obesity in children.

ResearchMethod/Procedure

Thereview identified researches that tried to mitigate sedentarybehaviors in kids (1 to 12 years old). The original age search rangewas 0 to 18 years however, there were no studies that wereidentified to have children going beyond the range of 1-12 years. Thesearch was carried out through the use of the PubMed database.

Participants

Theparticipants for the study involved children having a range of 1 to12 years. 88% of the studies had both female and male participants,whereas one study comprised male participants only and another onestudy included female participants only. Sample sizes had the rangeof 10-1323 participants.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Changein the body mass index (BMI) and changes in the sedentary screenbehavior have been treated as the dependent variable in the article.Alternatively, independent variable in the review is leisure-timescreen behavior involved in watching TV, DVDs, videos, as well asplaying video games and computer games.

Results

Resultsfrom different studies in children indicate that mitigating sedentaryscreen time alone, or as part of a more all-inclusive initiative, maybe a promising approach for treating as well as preventing obesity.

Conclusion

Thestudy concluded that people do not change behavior when they areasked to do so. In an attempt to mitigate sedentary screen behaviors,different theories and tactics have been used to bring about thechange. From the article, Premack principle has been indicated as animportant reinforcement theory.

Whitmarsh,E. (2002). AnAnalysis of the Effects of Contingent Delivery of Tasks withDifferent Difficulty and Non-contingent Delivery of Tasks withDifferent Preferences.Louisiana State University Department of Psychology.

Purposeof the Study

Thepurpose of the study was to examine instructional tactics derivedfrom the Premack principle as well as task interspersed strategiesfor four learners having moderate to severe developmentaldisabilities.

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis of the study was to investigate the three-term contingencycan be manipulated to change the behavior of learners. In thisrelation, the hypothesis seeks to find out whether the Premackprinciple is directly associated with the contingent delivery ofpreferred activities.

ResearchMethod/Procedure

Theexamination involved two studies, where in one study learners wereoffered contingent access to favored easy tasks for appropriateresponding in one condition. However, in the second study, studentswere provided with contingent access to preferred hard tasks forappropriate responding. In both studies, baseline comprised of massedinstructions of 30 trials. The tasks became identified through a taskpreference evaluation based on the free operant preferenceassessment. In evaluating the results, a reversal design was used.

Participants

Fourparticipants having moderate to serious developmental disabilitieswere used for each study. The individuals were either outpatients orinpatients at the Marcus Behavior Center and they were identified byparents, teachers, or/and therapists as non-compliant when they wererequested to perform an academic task.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Theindependent variable in the study was the insertion of three highprobability demands immediately beforehand the low probabilitydemands. On the other hand, the dependent variable in the researchwas the percentage of compliance to low probability having “do”and “don’t” commands.

Results

Fromthe first study, the results showed that all the four participantshad higher response accuracy the moment preferred easy tasks becamepresented contingently. When it came to providing of difficult tasks,all the four participants portrayed that they had lower responseaccuracy compared to the easy task condition. In the case for studytwo, results depicted that all four participants had higher responseaccuracy when preferred easy tasks became presented non-contingently.However, three out of four participants indicated low levels ofresponse accuracy when easy tasks that were non-preferred becamepresented non-contingently.

Conclusion

Thestudy concluded that difficult favored tasks emerged as not effectivesupporters compared to the easy preferred tasks. Also, thecombination of recognized tasks can be considered detrimental. Thestudies support the use of instructionally relevant response whencreating instructional strategies. Furthermore, the Premack principleis directly associated with the contingent delivery of preferredactivities.

Ledford,R.J. &amp Gast, L.D. (2006). Feeding Problems in Children withAutism Spectrum Disorders: A Review. Focuson Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,Vol. 21 (3) 153-166.

Purposeof the Study

Thepurpose of the research was to synthesize studies concerning thetypes of feeding problems as well as interventions utilized withchildren having ASD. Through the study, the authors also providedifferences in empirically supported treatments and those used byparents for aberrant feeding conducts in kids having ASD.Furthermore, the study desired to investigate the effectiveness ofPremack principle in the transformation of feeding behavior amid kidshaving ASD.

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis of the study was to investigate whether there are specificmaladaptive feeding conducts that can be associated with childrenhaving ASD, which was to be investigated through presenting kidshaving ASD with a variety of food groups while recording expulsion,acceptance, and disruption across trials.

ResearchMethod/Procedure

Inthis study, information concerning maladaptive feeding conducts inchildren having ASD became obtained through conducting electronic aswell as ancestral searches. Besides, the inclusion criteria forselected articles had to be published within 1994 and 2004. Ancestralsearches were conducted in several journals that were relevant tokids having autism and other developmental disabilities, behaviortherapy, and feeding problems.

Participants

Thenumber of participants used for the entire study was 381 kids havingASD. All the participants had received a diagnoses for ASD however,it was specified the kind of diagnoses that all received although itwas clear for some of the children.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Foodacceptance or consumption was considered vital for the study andrepresented the dependent variable for the research. In the study,consumption was seen as the acceptance of food by children in mouthwith its expulsion. Alternatively, the independent variable for theresearch was children having the ASD condition.

Results

Allthe descriptive studies indicated that there was evidence ofsubstantial feeding issues with children having ASD. 87% of thechildren having ASD that were enrolled in a private educationalinitiative portrayed a low or moderate degree of selectivity. Thestudy found that there was evidence of maladaptive feeding conductsamong children that have ASD.

Conclusion

Thereview of the studies showed that kids having ASD in their studyportrayed more feeding issues compared to children without ASD. Theresearch indicated that the issue of feeding behaviors occurs inapproximately 46% to 89% of children having ASD. The study concludedthat the Premack principle was effective in the transformation ofbehavior of children with ASD. For instance, the study indicated thata kid may only first smell new foods but would later be required tolick it and consume vast proportions.

Jaspers,E.K., Skinner, H.C., Williams, L.R. &amp Saecker, B.L. (2007).Effects of Problem Order on Accuracy, Preference, and Choice ofMultiplication Assignments. TheBehavior Analyst Today,Vol. 8 (3).

Purposeof the Study

Thepurpose of the research was to compare the impacts of three sequencesof math problems within assignments. The three sequences of the mathproblems were long to short, random, and short to long. These were tobe evaluated on different measures that include time required incompleting every assignment, accuracy of solutions, deemed difficultyof problems, as well as the related homework assignment. The Premackwas utilized as one of the reinforcement principles.

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis for the study was investigating whether the effects ofthree outcomes of math problems were similar.

ResearchMethod/Procedure

Theexperiments took place inside the regular classrooms that thestudents were used to and had to happen during the scheduled classtime. Upon the participants submitting informed consent forms,learners completed their packet. Prior to starting the assignments,participants were instructed to complete the problems in order, wherethey were to work from left to right as well as top to bottom. Theparticipants were to be monitored by research assistants and theywere to be guided by a vast screen that indicated the time allocatedto the problems.

Participants

Theparticipants for the study comprised of learners taking anundergraduate human development course at a public university. Fortheir involvement, the students were offered 5 points of credit,which was considered to be 1% less compared to their final grade.There were 151 participants selected to be involved in the research,but six of them did not follow instructions while three did notcomplete the assignments within the allocated time. Therefore, datawas analyzed for 142 participants.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Thestudy had different dependent variables, which included time requiredin completing every assignment, accuracy of solutions, deemeddifficulty of problems, as well as the related homework assignment.The independent variables were accuracy, preference, and choice ofmultiplication problems.

Results

Theresults obtained in the study indicated that the accuracy of theparticipants was not different despite the order of presenting theassignments to the participants being changed. The students spentdifferent average times in completing the assignments, which meantthat the means for the problems were significantly different.Besides, results indicated that assignment order was linked to thedifficulty of the assignments. Alternatively, there was nosignificant difference amid completion time and accuracy of theassignments.

Conclusion

Thelong-to-short sequence, which was consistent with the Premackprinciple of reinforcement fared a little bit better compared to theshort-to-long sequence for the differentiation of the findings fortask sequence. Participants were indicated to be more likely toselect an assignment they perceived to consume less time, lessdifficult, and less effortful. From the findings of the study, it wasdifficult to claim superiority of any one task sequence over another.

Nasey,C. (2012). Teachers’Use of Classroom-Based Management Strategies: A Survey of New ZealandTeachers.Albany: Massey University.

Purposeof the Study

Thepurpose of the research was to investigate the actions of the NewZealand tutors in their classrooms in order to reduce behavioraldisruptions in an attempt to optimize learning and teachingcurricula. The use of classroom-based management strategies was to beestablished in the study.

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis of the research was to investigate whether theclassroom-based management strategies utilized by the New Zealandtutors differed from those used by teachers in US/Greek.

ResearchMethod/Procedure

Asurvey was first used as a pilot study on 10 teachers to assess theunderstandability and readability. The initial stage to the studycommenced with obtaining clearance from the Human Ethics Committee atthe Massey University. It was after that that the survey package wasdistributed to teachers for responses. Tutors were required toprovide answers to the survey at their convenient time and return thereplies in an already paid envelope. The data became analyzed usingSPSS after coding.

Participants

Differentco-educational primary school/principals became contacted throughtelephone and requested to participate in the study. 53 tutors wereinvolved in the study, where 85% were female (45 participants) while15% (8) were male. The participants were requested to give report ontheir utilization of essential classroom management practices. Theinvolvement in the study was voluntary.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Inthe study, the learning outcomes were the dependent variable whilethe independent variables in the research were the classroom-basedstrategies used by tutors.

Results

Theresults of the study indicate that a majority of the tutors adhereand follow school wide discipline plan and a vast number of teacherstend to apply their own classroom policies. Most instructors use fiverules. Through the study, it was found that instructors listed“respect” as their most important rule when they were asked torank classroom rules in the order of the most important policy.

Conclusion

Amajority of tutors deemed that their classroom management strategieswere sufficient and there was no substantial difference amid recentlyand highly-experienced instructors in the use of validated approachesin classroom. The study revealed that there was a similarity betweenNew Zealand and US/Greek classroom management strategies. Theapplication of Premack principle was a common practice as areinforcement strategy.

References

Jaspers,E.K., Skinner, H.C., Williams, L.R. &amp Saecker, B.L. (2007).Effects of Problem Order on Accuracy, Preference, and Choice ofMultiplication Assignments. TheBehavior Analyst Today,Vol. 8 (3).

JeremyA. S., Dixie, L. T., David, R. B., Eugene, C. F., &amp Hollie, A. R.(2012). “A Review of Different Behavior Modification StrategiesDesigned to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children.” Journalof Obesity,doi:10.1155/2012/379215.

Killeen,R.P. (2014). Pavlov + Skinner = Premack. InternationalJournal of Comparative psychology,27 (4) 544-568.

Ledford,R.J. &amp Gast, L.D. (2006). Feeding Problems in Children withAutism Spectrum Disorders: A Review. Focuson Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,Vol. 21 (3) 153-166.

Nasey,C. (2012). Teachers’Use of Classroom-Based Management Strategies: A Survey of New ZealandTeachers.Albany: Massey University.

Whitmarsh,E. (2002). AnAnalysis of the Effects of Contingent Delivery of Tasks withDifferent Difficulty and Non-contingent Delivery of Tasks withDifferent Preferences.Louisiana State University Department of Psychology.