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Thestory of American history marks progress in various sectors ofdevelopment. One of these sectors is women empowered through theRepublican motherhood. The other is the creation of a new nation, theRepublicans.

ChapterSix: Republican Motherhood.

TheRepublican motherhood is a concept that emerged from 1780 to 1830after the War of Independence. Initially, the men viewed women asinferior, but the war proved it was necessary for all citizens to beprepared to serve the nation (Fraser 34). As such, women wereencouraged to educate themselves on matters of liberty, democracy,and independence, to teach the same lesson to the future generations.

Visionsof the Republican Motherhood

TheRevolutionary War exposed the importance of the role of women inbringing up sons to take up positions of leadership in the society.Women took this as a chance to educate themselves to better thelessons they teach their children. From this, the most importantvision of the movement was to educate women to have a say in publicmatters.

Republicanmotherhood also had the vision to enslave women from abusiverelationships. Women stopped blindly obeying their husbands. Itchanged the institution of marriage to that of mutual respect. Therewas emphasis on choosing partners for love and companionship

DifferentVisions of the Republican Motherhood

TheRepublican motherhood ideologies divided the women into two groupsone was the broader Republican motherhood, and the other was the truewomanhood. Both teams were keen to attend to their domestic roles tobring up morally straight and religious children (Fraser 21). It wasthe fundamental role of any mother in the Revolutionary War era.

Thedifference between the two groups is their engagement with the worldoutside their homes. Republican mothers, having been inspired by theRevolution and a chance at education, became active in civic duties.They took up roles and spoke their thoughts on matters of civicleadership. Led by Abigail Adams, the Republican mothers talked aboutissues of power between men and women and the relationship betweenpowers accorded to men from religion.

Truewomen were passive on civic duties as their inspiration wasevangelicalism. The group focused on the role of women in the familyand home and left public duties for the men. True women concentratedon the emotional power to move their husbands to their will. Suchwomen may have exercised power, but it was confined to the privatehome sphere (Fraser 43).

Limitationof the Republican woman by Class and Race

Theslave in America during the revolutionary era did not have any rightsto education, voting or even freedom. The revolutionary war may haveallowed black men to join the military to help fight forindependence, but the women did not get any empowerment fromeducation like the rest of the Republican mothers.

Womenof low social standing did not stand a chance to join the republicanmotherhood movement. Such women would not be able to access educationand would therefore not get the ideologies of the group. However,since the church endorsed the Republican motherhood, going to churchwould have exposed such women to Republican motherhood.

Infact, the leaders of the Republican motherhood, like Abigail Adams,were women of high social standing in the society. She was the motherand wife of American Presidents.

ChapterEight: Creation of a New Nation

Politicalof the 1800s compared to that of the 1700s,

Theelectoral contests, ideological conflicts and personal disagreementsin the early 1800s were more slanderous, violent and vitriolic thanthose of the late 1700s. The Federalists did not see eye to eye withthe Democratic-Republicans (simply referred to as the Republicans) asthey did not agree on principles. This chapter examines the causes ofconflict and method of solving conflict use in the Thomas Jeffersonpresidential era.

TheFederalists were organized and supporters of the Constitution. TheRepublicans, on the other hand, started as an informal movement ledby Jefferson in response to the economic plans by Hamilton. Jeffersoncarried this informality to the White House when he became President.Jefferson changed the elaborate White House parties to simple one andwithout regard to social stratification. The ease and lack of concernfor social stratification infuriate the Federalists who had held thePresidential seat for two terms before Jefferson.

Jeffersonemphasized on reconciliation and national unity. He wanted to make anation with social equality in particular among the white malecitizens. Social hierarchies upheld by the Federalists had limitedfreedom for the citizen, and that is what Jefferson hoped to abolish.Jefferson and a majority of the Americans wanted equality, not justregarding government representation, but also how the residentstreated each other. The Federalist disagreed with this thinking asthey hoped to retain class separation to continue ruling overAmerica.

Theideological conflict was high during the 1800s. While the Federalistfavored a strong national government, the Republicans opted for asmaller federal government that had little involvement in economicmatters. The Federalist supported strong ties between the US andBritain while their archenemies preferred to team up with France(Fraser 10).

DeadlyPractice of Dueling

Inthe 1800s, any conflict, including political arguments, was solvedusing violence. External observers thought America was losing itscohesion. While men of little social standing resolved their disputesby gruesome fights, the men of high social standing settled grudgeswith a duel. Jefferson`s Vice President, Aaron Burr, killed hispolitical rival, Alexander Hamilton, in a duel because of the outcomeof the 1800 election. Andrew Jackson, before becoming President, wasshot in a duel over a horse race bet and retained the bullet in hischest until his death. His opponent died in that duel (Fraser 56).

Jeffersonhad a close call with duels. In 1805, there was a smear campaignagainst him causing debate in Massachusetts legislature about hischaracter. It awakened controversy about his sexual relationship withone of his slaves, Sally Hemings. Jefferson denied all the claims onhis character except the Walker affair (Fraser 67). To avoid the dueland the damage of such a scandal, Jefferson apologized to John Walkerfor attempting to seduce his wife.

Oneof the leading causes of violence and duels in America at the timewas the high level of alcohol consumption. In the early 1800s, use ofalcohol doubled from the average 2.5 gallons per person annually to 5gallons.

Thepeople who suffered most from the violence were the slaves, Indians,women, and children. This group had little they could do to protectthemselves from violence as the Law had no provisions for protection.Many thought of it as an intrusion into family matters if a man wastried for violence against his wife or children.


Fraser, James W. By the People: A History of the United States. New York: Pearson, 2015. Print.