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Psychedelics and Hallucinogens

PSYCHEDELICS AND HALLUCINOGENS 6

Psychedelicsand Hallucinogens

Question1

Intoxicationdenotes the impairment of the mental and physical functions of thebody as a result of ingestion of a substance, usually a drug orchemical into the body system. Intoxication leads to blurred images,speech, and even difficulty in walking (Hartney, 2016). Imperatively,intoxication depresses body systems, especially the central nervoussystem and leads to a change of mood and physical abilities. Toxicityis the level to which a substance can damage the body system or anorganism. Toxicity is more dangerous than intoxication since it canresult in death. Both concepts are synonymous with poisoning.

Allthe drugs consumed by an individual are eliminated by thebodyafter they are chemically changed or metabolized. In some cases, theyare removed when intact. Over-the-counter medications are excreted bythe kidneys in urine while some are eradicated by excretion in thebile (Le, 2016). An essential attribute of Over-the-counter drugs isthat they are soluble and are not tightly bound to proteins in thebloodstream. Therefore, the acidity of the urine is altered by givingantacids like sodium bicarbonates to speed up the excretion of thesedrugs from the body (Le, 2016).

Performance-enhancingdrugs may contain proteins and carbohydrate elements. As a result,they may be excreted as intact compounds through the bile. Themedications are eradicated through the stool or reabsorbed into thebloodstream and recycled.

Question2

Themedia has played a key role in highlighting the use ofperformance-enhancing drugs. Predominantly, the platform has beenactive in the disclosure of sports personalities involved in the useof performance-enhancing drugs to win major titles and tournaments.Despite the efforts, the media has not revealed the health risksassociated with PEDs. In most cases, most coverage focuses on sportspersonalities and implications of performance-enhancing drugs ontheir careers such as the loss of money and suspension periods,rather than emphasizing the serious health risks involved (TheHuffington Post, 2013).

Themedia, especially social and viral media influences the use ofover-the-counter drugs. Advertising increases the use ofnon-prescription drugs (Schweim &amp Ullman, 2015). In most cases,OTC treatment is perceived as safe. Once the media has advertised,most people ignore the health risks involved.

Themedia also influences the use of dietary supplements as highlightedby a study done by Eline Frison and others in 2013. Withoutmentioning specific media channels, the study postulates that mediaexposure leads to the use of dietary supplements among Flemishadolescent boys.

Question3

Thequestion of chicken-egg conundrum arises since mental disorders maynot necessarily be products of drug or substance abuse andaddictions. For instance, a depressed person may turn to alcohol forcomfort while an alcoholic or substance abuser becomes depressed andeventually suffers mental disorder as a result of abusing drugs andother substances. Imperatively, dual diagnosis or co-occurringdisorders should be treated simultaneously since separation based onwhich one occurred first may exacerbate the situation and affect thepatient.

Question4

Theincorporation of psychopharmacologicaltreatment with clients having co-occurring disorders requires anintegrated approach that includes the development of a therapeuticalliance in the treatment process. Therefore, it can be realized bymaintaining a recovery perception, managing countertransference,monitoring psychiatric signs, and offering supportive and empathiccounseling. The use of culturally competent methods and increasedstructural support is evidently important (Kelly &amp Daley, 2013).Clients suffering from co-occurring disorders may have prescriptionsalongside counseling sessions. Methadone, antidepressants andpsychotropic medications are necessary prescriptions for suchclients. Furthermore, serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can beused for these patients (Brunette, 2016).

References

Brunette,M. (2016). Medicationsand the Management of CODs. Accessed on November 15,

2016from &lthttp://www.bhevolution.org/public/perspectives_031011.page&gt

Frison,E, Vandenbosch, L and Eggermont, S. (2013). Exposure to mediapredicts use of dietary

supplementsand anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.EuropeanJournal of Pediatrics,Vol. 172, No. 10, pp. 1387-1392.

Hartney,E. (2016). What Does Intoxication Mean? Accessed on November 15, 2016from

&lthttps://www.verywell.com/what-is-intoxication-22219&gt

Kelly,T.M, and Daley, D.C. (2013). Integrated Treatment of Substance Useand Psychiatric

Disorders.Social Work Public Health,Vol.28, pp.388-406. doi:&nbsp&lt10.1080/19371918.2013.774673&gt

Le,J. (2016). Drug Elimination, Accessed on November 15, 2016 from

http://www.msdmanuals.com/home/drugs/administration-and-kinetics-of-drugs/drug-elimination

Schweim,H. and Ullman, M. (2015). Media influence on risk competence inself-medication and

Self-treatment.German Medical Science Journal, Vol.13, 2015.

TheHuffington Post. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in the Media Again,Accessed on

November15, 2016 from&lthttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/a-marc-gillinov-md/performance-enhancing-drugs_b_4587971.html&gt