- May 3, 2020
Public Health Initiatives Report Card
PublicHealth Initiatives Report Card
PublicHealth Initiatives Report Card
Recently,Americans have been promised a healthier future which has led to theeruption of several health initiatives. They serve as road maps byestablishing a wide range of overarching goals while indicatingactions to be taken to better the quality of life of every American.Nonetheless, there have been recent debates as to whether all thestated goals of these initiatives can be accomplished. However, someof the objectives have been attained since care for dialysis has beenpositively addressed, preventable diseases like hypertension havebeen reduced, and there has been a notable decline in the breast andcervical cancers.
Healthy People 2020
InDecember 2010 by the United States Health and Human ServicesDepartment launched the initiative. The goals and objectives thatwere set included the attainment of high-quality and longer lives forall people and reduced disabilities, injury, preventable illnessesand premature death approximately by fifty percent. An additionalobjective was for the state to ensure that there is a health plan tohelp people afford proper care. Under the plan, individuals wereexpected to attain a level of health that would enable them to leadan economically productive life. Also,there should be more purchases of public health rapid responseequipment which should be increased by eighty-five percent by theyear 2020.
Inan attempt to prove that there has been the accomplishment ofaffordable health care in the region, there has been the introductionof the Affordable Care Act 2010 (ACA). It has prompted people toaccess affordable quality health. The program has ensured that theavailability of care to all has been achieved. The initiative enablescitizens to have an improved insurance coverage (Kohet al., 2014).Although the Access to Health Services (AHS) has not indicated majorprogress to date, ACA has been fully implemented. In 2014,approximately 9.3 million people newly obtained insurance access viainsurance marketplaces, Medicaid expansion as well as other venues.The figure has surpassed the 5 million set.
Anotherattained objective under this initiative is the health preparednessand response to the state. The target was directed to the governmentto ensure that it has proper facilities in place for disasterresponse and preparedness (Kohet al., 2014).After the domestic and international terrorism actions in 2001, thestate acted fast in implementing some measures, and that was to beprepared at all times. The state realized that it is its obligationto be prepared and respond appropriately when a health emergencyissue erupts. Since then there has been a tremendous improvementbecause there have been the erection of public health systems torespond to such incidents. The move has led to the attainment of thepolicy of this initiative since the target of eighty-five percent ofthe increase in purchasing of the equipment was met.
Advantagesof the HP2020 Initiative
Itis helping people lead a productive life. Individuals can plan fortheir health costs. Those who have benefited from the ACA initiativeare less concerned about the source of money to cater for theirwell-being (Kohet al., 2014).These people can comfortably engage in productive work and helpimprove the economy. The ACA plan which was also one of the goals hashelped reduce the burden on the family members and friends who had tocater for the health care bills in case of hospitalization.
Additionally,the ACA initiative has introduced dental coverage for children. It isestimated that more than 62 million people will be benefiting fromthe plan shortly. On care coordination, it comprises of freshincentives for physicians to deliver improved care at reduced price(Kohet al., 2014).For example, the Medicare payments to the providers currently havelinks to quality care. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Serviceshas been undertaking some tests to give hospitals new incentives tocontrol the health of the population.
Theinitiative has also established several disease prevention andwelfare promotion opportunities which include a public health fundwhich is already in its fifth year. It has incorporated a broad rangeof welfare promotion initiatives affecting people, communities,insurance plans and the country at large (Kohet al., 2014).For instance, the plan now has brought access to improved valuepreventive services to people without cost sharing. More than 100million individuals are enlisted and are enjoying the service. Amongthese, there are those in private health plan who are more than 71million and also benefiting from the scheme. Also, reports show thatapproximate 37 million US residents have now accessed wellness visitsand the new preventive care via Medicare.
Whileassessing the advancement of another objective of HP 2020 that is,preventable diseases, it is appropriate to examine some of theillnesses, particularly in the United States like breast and cervicalcancer A research done between 2008 and 2010, found out that therewas a decline in the rate of the prevalence of these terminalillnesses below the target (Brown,2014).Additionally, the cancer screening rates especially colorectal havegone past the mark set which indicates that people have beensensitized regarding cancer and have developed an urge to eliminateit.
All-causemortality has reduced by fifty percent in patients who are onprevalent dialysis. Thus, the HP 2020 objective has been met. Inincident clients, the survival gain has been low though still, itsurpasses the target. On the other hand, mortalities as a result ofcardiovascular complications has seen a significant reduction(Wetmoreet al., 2016).Deaths caused by diabetes have also decreased, and the rate of newpatients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) has gone down.
By2012, research shows that control of hypertension as one of thepreventable diseases has flattened below the target of fifty percentthat has been set. The prevalence of the disease is still progressing(Eganet al., 2014).Nonetheless, the treatment of the illness was exceeded. Probably theequipment and the facilities meant to address the issue are not up tostandards and may have prevented the attainment of the HP2020 goalsand objectives.
Theadvantage of the idea of the state to improve preparedness is that itinitiated the purchasing of surveillance equipment, improvinglaboratory, epidemiology and the general response capabilities of thehealth system (Kohet al., 2014).For instance, the Laboratory Response Network facilities that passedthe proficiency examinations for bioterrorism threat agentsregistered an increase from 87 percent in 2006 to 95 percent in 2010.There was also an elevation in the percentage of state public healthagencies prepared to employ the Strategic National Stockpileequipment from 70 percent in 2006 to 98 percent in 2010.
Additionally,improved response measures were manifested during the H1N1 influenzapandemic in 2009. There was a rapid detection of the outbreak.Moreover, there was the instant deployment of laboratory testingmaterials in almost all areas. Personal protective attire was alsomade available swiftly to ensure the minimal spread of the disease.Within a short time after the detection, a candidate vaccine viruswas generated. The resulting main vaccine was soon widespreadadministered. These interventions prevented an approximate fivemillion cases and thirty thousand hospitalizations as well as 1,500deaths. There was also an emergency plan developed for AIDS reliefclinics. They were employed to provide treatment following thecholera outbreak in 2010 rapidly.
TheHealth People 2020 initiative has proved beneficial. Those withcancer have endured quality treatment, and it has led to significantreduction in some these patients. The initiative has helped as itintroduces care coordination in the region (Kohet al., 2014). The public health could potentially better the future outcomes asfar as the wellbeing of the people is concerned.
Canall the objectives be met?
Allthe objectives can be achieved since findings show that that obesitytreatment and prevention could curb the pervasiveness of illnesseslike hypertension. Also, the presence of healthcare visits in thearea could help in curbing the epidemic among Americans.Additionally, the guidelines presented to all people based onaddressing the issue of cholesterol would aid in improving thecontrol of hypertension (Kohet al., 2014). In the case of mortality, it is possible to reduce deaths beyond thetarget previously set. All major causes of demise in the region canbe addressed. Complications of diabetes, cardiovascular illnesses canbe prevented from the initial stages and help reduce the number ofdeaths.
The Health for all Year 2000
Theinitiative was introduced in 1977. The World Health Assembly (WHA)set some key social targets for governments and for the World HealthOrganization (WHO) to initiate before the year 2000. The mainobjectives were to achieve equality in the health sector and minimizethe existing disparities by sixty percent and improve the healthcondition of people in all groups.Anotherone was to develop physical and social environments that may lead toan improved well-being of a person. The environmental hazards were tobe reduced by approximate seventy percent (Kohet al., 2014).The additional objection was to enlighten people about the advantagesof indulging in physical activities to ensure proper health and thetarget was to increase the number by thirty percent. Ensuringhealthier behaviors like proper nutrition was also on the radar.
Objectivesmet and positive progress
Whenconsidering the environmental quality in the U.S, the indicators havesurpassed the target. The organization had pledged to reduce effectsof environmental pollution by seventy percent. There is improvedquality of air, and children have endured less exposure to secondhandsmoke (Kohet al., 2014).The initiative had pledged appropriate environmental conditions forall especially the children.
Therehas been a positive progress in ensuring health equity andeliminating disparities. The research conducted, as 1996 being thebaseline to 2000, indicated that the gap in infant mortality rateamong the non-Hispanic black mothers and Non-Hispanic white ones havereduced by sixty percent (Koh,2014).Also, rates of homicide cases in 2000 between the Asian or PacificIslanders and the non-Hispanic black have reduced at the same rate by1997.
Advantagesof the initiative
Anotheradvantage is that it has addressed environmental issues within theUnited States. So far, the quality of air in the region has beenencouraging, and the complications due to environmental hazards havebeen eliminated (Kohet al., 2014).People are living safely in the regions which were previouslypolluted.
Anotheradvantage derived from the attainment of the exercise and nutritiongoal was that people are highly benefiting from the guidelines issuedto ensure proper health. These guidelines regard the aerobic physicalactivity as well as muscle strengthening exercises (Kohet al., 2014).Research indicates that a significant number of adults have met thefederal rules for such activities and that they have developed properbody physique.
Objectivesnot met and the Barriers to achieving them
Onthe other hand, issues of proper eating habits and the physicalactivity have not been addressed by the health sector appropriately.The outcome has not met the thirty percent set previously by theorganization. In 2000 the percentage of people indulging in physicalexercises improved but did not attain the mark set (Kohet al., 2014).However, the number was boosted by the need for old people toundertake exercises to improve their physical condition. The younggeneration did not have that desire even after being convinced. Thenumber of vegetarians recorded was also low. People continued takingjunky foods even after being sensitized on dangers associated withthem.
Thedisparity in the achievement of uniform reduced exposure to poulltedair is a major barrier for initiative (Kohet al., 2014).For example, the Hispanic children experience less exposure ascompared to those of the non-Hispanic black due to the difference intheir environments.
Canall goals be met?
Itis possible to accomplish all the goals. The close to 70%eliminination of physical hazards is an indication of a dedicatedenvironmental system that can also scale down pollution. Sternmeasures can be taken against those people who are committing thevice. Also teaching individuals or groups about various ways to carefor the environment may help in ensuring proper surroundings.Additionally, equity in the health sector is achievable. Thegovernment can assist people in the minority groups access the sametype of health care as the majority groups. Everyone should beprovided with insurance plans to manage to attend any health facilitywithin the country. Health caregivers should be directed to shundiscrimination. The government should use all forces to ensure thattreatment in the region is not be based on one’s race, religion orfinancial position. Moreover, the citizens can continue being taughtthe proper food to take and the kind of physical exercises toundertake. The move would ensure attainment of the objective set bythe World Health Organization. Still, in an attempt to do so, thegovernment can ban most advertisements regarding the junky food tosave the population.
TheHealth for all in the 21stCentury
TheWorld Health Assembly introduced another initiative dubbed as theHealth for all in the 21stCentury which is also referred to as the Health 21. The twenty-onetargets included in the program is the reason behind its identity.Some of the objectives included ensuring health solidarity betweenstates, minimize the health gap within a country by the end of the21stcentury where the organization used the term equity in health todefine the goal (Baueret al., 2014).Others comprised of ensuring improved mental condition for all,addressing communicable and non-communicable diseases, curbing injuryfrom accidents and violence. The organization also advocated for thepromotion of quality life and development of healthy behaviors acrossall stages of life which incorporated the healthy start in life andthat of young people.
Moreover,there was an urge to see to it that there is an increase of 40% ofsurviving dialysis. The association also proposed a reduction in thedangers caused by harmful substances like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco(Koh,2014).There was also a pledge to focus more on the outcomes of all healthrelated issues. The division also stated that they want to ensurethat proper human resource departments are put in place to guaranteethe achievement of the strategies and policies of the welfare forall.
Oneof the targets was to have a positive start to life for children. Itis experiencing progressive improvement since there has been anexpansion of a screening program for newborns in the United States.The initiative has so far attracted more than 300,000 expectantmothers in the region which creeping past the target (Koh,2014).
Anothertarget that has been achieved is the pre-dialysis care. It ismeasured as a percentage of clients under nephrology care before itsinitiation or the percentage of patients with functioning or maturingAVFs at this stage (Wetmoreet al., 2016).It could be considered as one of the survival gains observed of late.The number of people who have survived kidney diseases has gone pastthe target of 40% initially set by the initiative.
Injuryand violence have also been minimized in the country particularly bythe U.S security agents in collaboration with the healthprofessionals. Homicides rates have been on a downward trend, and itis almost surpassing the 80% target initially set on the initiative(Kohet al., 2014).Hazards that lead to injuries for instance road accidents have beenaddressed. People are periodically reminded on safe methods of usingpublic highways to minimize cases of road carnage. First aid serviceshave been improved in the area to ensure that the injury incurreddoes not lead to further complications in their bodies.
Thesystem helps health caregivers to assess any harmful or fatalcondition on the unborn child. Treatment is often administered uponany detection. The federal guidelines propose a screening exerciseinvolving twenty-nine core conditions. Additionally, on the childrenwelfare, there has been an initiative to curb obesity among youngpersons. The United States federal government required districtschools to develop wellness committees which should ban the vendingaround their institutions’ compounds (Baueret al., 2014).There is also an establishment of the Child Health Advisory Committeethat advocates for healthy eating and physical activities among youngpeople. In schools, Body Mass Index (BMI) of every child ismonitored.
Objectivesthat have not been met and the Barriers
Inan efforts to ensure mental health and harmful effects that accompanypoor psychological conditions have presented less appealing resultswhich are far below the target set. Indicators of recent depressiveepisodes among the adolescents reflect a worsening outcome (Koh,2014).The suicide rates as a result of the awful mental state are also onthe rise in present times. The initiative had pledged to address theissue of poor mental health positively, but the lack of properguidance and counseling in the region has been playing less part intrying to reach the goal.
Anotherworsening outcome under the initiative is that drugs and alcohol arestill prevalent in the area. Several teams assigned to address thematter have found it difficult in convincing people to shun thehabits. Currently, the number of those who are using drugs in Americais on the rise. Reports indicate that the percentage of those whowere using substances like marijuana and other harmful substanceshave risen from 13% from 2006 to 19% in 2010 (Baueret al., 2014).They are introducing harmful consequences on the users. Many youthsare dropping out of school. There are also drug-death related casesin the country. Additionally, the substances are linked to increasingin the number of people living with AIDS.
Oneof the challenges is that while trying to curb obesity from an earlystage, many older children are already obese (Koh, 2014). It isarguably challenging to bring the condition to a halt since thesystems have been designed to deal with the issue from birth.Approximate Thirty-eight percent of children from Arkansas arealready obese. There is still much work to do for the foreseers ofsuch programs in the city.
Anotherbarrier is that drug users are constantly searching for new recruits.The panels assigned with the task controlling drug abuse in the areaare finding it complicated to reduce the number of users. Issues ofdrug trafficking are common and difficult to handle (Bauer et al.,2014). They assume all forms including hiding under human fresh andtaken to innocent people like those in school. Drugs are locallyproduced and also imported from neighboring countries. Though federalsecurity agents have intensively involved in eliminating the vice, itis still a complex task that needs serious attention.
Thepanels responsible for encouraging the youths and other adults toattend counseling sessions against drugs have failed in its work.Also, most young people still do not recognize the need to visit apsychiatric when in need (Bauer et al., 2014). They develop thesevere mental condition and later opt to commit suicide as the onlyoption.
Canthe overall goals be met?
Itis rather difficult to attain all the objectives of the program.Issues like drug arguably cannot be eliminated entirely. The DrugEnforcement Agencies have tried to deal with the issue, but there arealways new ways to smuggle drugs. The move is also capped withcorruption in the area where influential people in the state aid inthe movement of these substances. On the other hand, injuries andviolence can be eliminated totally. The federal agents responsiblecan ensure stiff measures to help curb accidents especially thosehappening on the roads as well as domestic ones. People should besensitized on various safe ways to ensure that deaths associated withaccidents and domestic violence are limited and probably eliminated.
Althoughthe report presents some directions and hopes for a healthier nation,it is noteworthy that some of the objectives are still in progressand cannot be fully evaluated. The data illustrates areas of bothimprovement and continued need. Some have documented improvementsothers worse outcomes, while some have even exceeded theexpectations. Public health represents unfinished business andfurther analyses to elaborate these alterations noted herein canamplify discussions regarding the aspirations for a healthiercountry. For the indicators showing improvements so far, the statehas to input more energy to accelerate advances even further. Forareas of worsening outcomes or no improvements at all, fresh effortsare highly needed to address the issues.
Whetherobjectives of these initiatives are met or not, they will highlydepend on upon the implementation of the health care reformprocedures that would better the access to and coordination of suchattention. Enhanced coordination and integration of clinical servicesand community-based efforts in an attempt to deliver improvedtreatment and elimination of disparities are also needed. Additionaldata to be released in the upcoming decade can act as the impetus topromote future action and commitments by all. The unity of purposeshown by the leading indicators of these initiatives can not onlyreinvigorate future obligation but also concentrate on the vision ofthe state.
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