- May 2, 2020
Whenscholars impose their model on the theory instead of crafting a modelto test the theory
Havingweak theories too imprecise to test
Whenscholars offer transparent scholarship
Ethiopiahas more political freedom than Russia.
Syriansenjoy more political freedom than Libyans.
Italyhas less political freedom than the US or Poland but more thanEthiopia.
Libyahas less political freedom than Syria or Iran.
Italyis more democratic than Ethiopia.
Syriais less democratic than Russia.
Astate with stronger democratic institutions does not automaticallyenjoy greater political freedom.
Pleasematch the described variable with the variable type.
Thepresence or absence of war- Nominal or categorical
7-PointScale indicating personal approval/disapproval of trade policy –Ordinal.
Yearssince a revolution took place – Interval.
GDPper capita measurement – ratio.
Themean will be less than the median.
Whenone faces a reasonable objection to oneâs research, one needs toredesign the study to overcome the identified weakness.
Supportfor Trade Restrictions
Stateswith repeated conflicts spanning years are properly consideredinternational rivalries.
Itis impossible to predict whether Fishâs paper shows thiscoefficient as a positive or negative value.
Itincreases the probability of the event.
Adoes not cause B
Thereis no apparent relationship between democratic institutions andinterest rates.
Thereis no statistical difference between the cost of borrowing money indemocratic or non-democratic states.
Ifdemocratic institutions benefit the local economy, there is noevidence that this applies to interest rates.
Yes,there is a positive relationship between GATT/WTO membership andinward FDI
Whydemocratic states do not go to war with other democracies.
Howdeveloping states really have higher per capita incomes thandeveloped states.
Howhigher performing individuals or groups may appear worse when theirperformance is aggregated and compared with other individuals orgroups.
Itindicates a negative relationship which should lead the researcher toreject the hypothesis.
Itincreases the probability of the event by .24
Cost-benefitanalysis is the essence of decision making
unipolarity,bipolarity and balance of power systems
Matrixwith No Equilibrium
Decisionsare solely based on cost-benefit analysis and are, thereby,decontextualized.
Preferencesvary between actors in the real world.
Gametheory is only as good as the model.
Thethree most important elements in a game theory model are:
Whatare the payoffs in the game?
Whatare the choices available to each actor?
Whoare relevant actors?
Whatare rules of the game?
âChilehas shown significant economic improvement through its reliance onmultiple free trade agreements with advanced industrial states.Consequently, any emerging market state that wishes to develop shouldpursue similar policies.â
Arecruiter was guilty of employing a false analogy because thepopulation of NYC included people of all ages and the Navy employedonly healthy individuals in their prime. If you compared similarpopulations in age and health in NYC, the Navy would be a far moredangerous place to work.
TheOrshansky calculation was unable to handle regional variation andassumed that a family in St. Paul would have the same living expensesas a family in Santa Barbara.
TheNash equilibrium indicates that democratic states engage in greaterlevels of trade protection.
Theformal model is likely wrong and one needs to re-examine theassumptions and come up with a more realistic paradigm.
Thereare multiple paths states can pursue that lead to the same end.
Thediversity of policy options makes it impossible to engage ininternational relations research.
Mansfield,E. D., Milner, H. V., & Rosendorff, B. P. (2000). Free to trade:Democracies, autocracies, and international trade. AmericanPolitical Science Review, 94(02),305- 321.