- May 7, 2020
Research Seminar Executive Name
ResearchSeminar Executive Summary
ResearchSeminar Executive Summary
Writinga research paper remains a daunting task given the different detailsthat are needed and should be incorporated to make sense out of it.Research methodology is a critical aspect of any research and entailsthe different aspects of research works that make the research asuccess. This paper synthesizes the different aspects of research andthe methodologies as noted by the authors. The paper concentrates onthe works of three authors.
Quantitativemethods include the different steps used in the collection, analysis,interpretation and documentation of the study findings. There arecertain defined methods that exist in both survey and experimentalresearch that can be associated with identification of a sample andpopulation. The methods also relate a specific type of design, datacollection process, results in presentation, interpretation processand writing the research in a way that is consistent with the surveyor experimental study.
Themixed approach remains to be treated as an innovative form of aquestion in research methods, and some of the researchers refer to itas a hybrid or integrated question. In his work, Gorard(2013) showsus the best practices in research design that when once acknowledgedby researchers, it will have a positive effect on their design andwarranty claims. The author advice the researchers to upholdstandards and stop the use of poorly tested interventions. In thework of Rallis and Rossman (2012), the authors help to groominquiry-minded students who can tackle various research works in anyof the education fields.
Keywords:Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods approaches, researchcollection, data, hypothesis.
MixedMethods Research Questions and Hypotheses-Creswell
AsCreswell (2013) notes, in research methods, individuals mainly do notsee the specific questions or the hypotheses that are primarily meantto meet the needs for mixed methods research. Nonetheless, there arediscussions that are beginning to start concerning the use of a newtype of research question in studies and commentary regarding themanner in which they should be designed. This new type of researchquestion is typically a mixed methods question. From the study of theworks of Creswell (2013), there are certain characteristics ofstrong-mixed methods. The characteristics note that the strong mixedmethods need to have a qualitative question, quantitative question orhypothesis and at the same time a mixed methods question. This typeof combination is essential given that mixed methods do not dependmainly on either qualitative or quantitative research but thedependence is on both methods of research. As posited by Ritchie etal., (2013), I tend to agree that researchers have to care about thetypes of questions that are presented, the time of presentation andthe information that is mainly required to tell about the study type.
Boththe qualitative and quantitative research questions and even thehypotheses need to be very elevated in a mixed methods study to helpin narrowing and concentrating on the statement of purpose. Thequestions or even the hypotheses need to be shared at the start ofthe research or even when they emerge in the later phase of theresearch. A case in point is that when a study commences with aquantitative phase, there are high chances that the researcher islikely to bring in the hypotheses issue (Ritchie et al., 2013).
Notably,later in the studies when the qualitative phase of the research isaddressed then the questions that are related to the phase appears.When one is writing the questions or the hypotheses, there is a needto have a serious follow up on the guidelines as far as scripting ofthe questions and hypotheses are concerned. I realized that there isneed to pay attention to the rank through which the researchquestions and the hypotheses occur. Notably, when handling thetwo-phase project, the set of questions will also be dictated by themanner and the position of each phase. Having this kind ofarrangement allows individuals to see the questions in the order inwhich the questions will be addressed in the study proposed.
Oneof the things that I learnt is that within a single-phase strategy ofinquiry, the questions can be ordered in regards to the method thatis allocated the greatest weight or the priority design. Apart fromthe quantitative questions or hypotheses and qualitative questions,there is a need to have the mixed methods research question thatuniquely addresses the mixing of the quantitative and qualitativesections of the research. This is an essential part of the questionthat is often answered through the mixed approach. The mixed approachremains to be treated as an innovative form of a question in researchmethods, and some of the researchers refer to it as a hybrid orintegrated question. The mixed method question can be written eitherat the start of the study or in the instances when it pops out in thestudy. For example in a single-phase study, both the quantitative andqualitative data are collected at the same time and merged. Ifproperly prepared, the mixed methods approach can be advanced at thebeginning of the study. Nonetheless, in the two-phase study where onephase builds on the other, the mixed methods questions can be placedin the discussion between the two phases. The mixed methods questioncan also be written in various forms. The forms are usually three.The first case is to write it in a manner that conveys the methods orstudy process. In this form, the main question asked is whether thequalitative data helps in explaining the results that are obtainedfrom the initial quantitative phase of the study(Marshall & Rossman, 2011).The second way is to document it in a manner that will allow forconveying the study materials. In this instance, the question askedis whether the theme of social support assist in expounding thereason why some of the students become bullies in schools. The thirdform is to integrate the methods and the content.
Anothermain point is considering how to present the quantitative,qualitative and mixed methods questions in a mixed methods study. Thebest format to write the questions is to have them in differentsections like the quantitative questions or hypotheses, thequalitative questions in another section and the mixed methodsquestion. Having this format according to Creswell (2013) helps inshowing the significance of all the three sets of questions that willbring the attention of the readers to the separate sections or theintegrated ones in instances where they are. When noting down thequestions, Creswell (2013) advises that the mixed methods questionsbe put last given that the study will help in building to the elementof the design.
Quantitativemethods include the different steps used in the collection, analysis,interpretation and documentation of the study findings. There arecertain defined methods that exist in both survey and experimentalresearch that can be associated with identification of a sample andpopulation. The methods also relate a specific type of design, datacollection process, results in presentation, interpretation processand writing the research in a way that is consistent with the surveyor experimental study. While handling the quantitative aspect of thestudy, I learnt the certain procedures that are used when designing asurvey or experimental methods that are required in a researchproposal.
Whilecarrying out research at times, I did generalize my conclusion. For avery long time, I never knew that generalization was a potentialthreat to external validity. Therefore, from this study, I haverealized that potential threats to external validity need to beidentified and certain designs created to help in minimization of thethreats. The external validity threats are known to mostly happenwhen the individuals carrying out a study gets to reach certaininferences from the sample data provided or even from other people oranother setting in the past or future situations. Usually, thethreats to data occur mainly because of the features orcharacteristics of the people that have been chosen for the sample,the unique nature of the place and the time when the experiment orthe research happens.
Thisbook has crafted a framework as well as compositional approaches thatare used to guide the designing of a proposal that is used to carryout quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research in human andsocial sciences. The rise in need to have qualitative research, theemergence of mixed methods approaches and the progressive applicationof traditional forms of quantitative designs have made this book tobe required and preferred when comparing the three approaches inresearch. The comparison starts with considering the philosophicalassumptions that underlie the three approaches, a review of theliterature and evaluation of the use of theory in the differentresearch approaches as well as the reflections regarding thesignificance writing and ethics within scholarly inquiry. This bookhas also addressed some of the main and primary elements of theprocess of carrying out research. The process, in this case, entailswriting an introduction, clearly stating the main objective of thestudy, identification of research questions and hypotheses as well ascoming up with the methods and process of collecting data andanalyzing it. These steps have to be procedural, and at every stage,the author takes the reader through a qualitative, quantitative andmixed methods approach. Different from Dr. K, this author has notexplored the triangulation method. In the works of Dr. K,triangulation is applied when questionnaires are used to obtain thematerial for the quantitative study, and for the qualitative one heused interviews. Focus groups were secured to evaluate the mixedmethodology. Having triangulation of the techniques leads tosynergistic effect and allows for a better perspective of the studyby benefiting from each approach but reducing limitations of eachmethod.
Gorard,S. (2013). Research Design: Creating robust approaches for the socialsciences.
Socialscience books dealing with research are a rare commodity to bumpinto. Most of them are usually boring to read and are not normallygeneralized. Acquiring this book known as “CreatingRobust Approaches for the Social Sciences”is a must so that one can obtain the essential tools and knowledgefor a research design. It has managed to accomplish the things thatseem impossible in the social science research books(Gorard, 2013).The beginning of the book is a motivator to new researchers that notonly provides them with the basic introduction but also the methodsof achieving a good design in their seasonal research (Gorard,2013).
Thefirst chapter mainly focuses on the research design involving thesocial sciences. He focuses on paying attention when a researcher isat the first stage of conducting research. A new researcher shouldhave the design at hand since it is the thing that is normallyignored in many areas. From the book, Gorard(2013)mentions that there are several sources existing for the researchteam, but they mainly focus on the research methods. The firstchapter outlines the essential elements of research design thatincludes a case to be studied, the subgroups allocation, sequence andtiming of data to be collected and any other important involvements.These elements are of significance because they are used in designingsimple design systems which will represent an existing or a newdesign (Gorard,2014).One must think about the concluding part since it is very importantin a research design. The conclusion will reflect the researcher’sway of design (Gorard,2013).
Thesecond chapter focuses on preliminary designs. This is the phasewhere a concept that has a higher level of design is created. Thedesigns will come in different forms such as cases or diagrams. Thischapter will mainly focus on creating a completely correct design.Gorard(2013) focuseson whether the researchers would prefer a qualitative, a quantitativeor research that will combine the two elements. He defines thesemethods to be premature, and one should focus on emulating theproblem statement and the research questions that are going to beanswered. A research design can be mainly grouped as a good or a badresearch. Therefore, one should place emphasis on the type ofresearch than how it will be conducted. As a researcher, the bookplaces emphasis on the design rather than the methods which otherauthors focuses on. A research design does not assume data collectionor theoretical lenses.
Chapter3 puts it all together on how data or cases are sampled, grouped,compared and how they would be timed in sequence (Gorard,2013).The author describes several types of samples random, non-random,clustered, stratified and opportunity. Each of these samples hastheir limitations, but his recommendation and preference are to userandom samples(Gorard, 2014).Examples that are given are through these two cases random samplesare known to randomize both the known and unknown features in asample. The second random case is that it is free from bias that issystematics that tends to stem from the researchers choice (Huber,2011).The author gives another emphasis on the significance ofnon-responses. Non-responses are pointed out as mere footnotes thatare used in research but what is not made clear is how they will havea direct impact on the research. The author advice on the bestgrouping of data, their comparison, samples collection timing and insequence.
Focusingon research warrants and claims, it is well defined and given thepillar of being the strength in a research design. A furtherdescription is that it is a logical argument that has evidencesupporting it (McKenney& Reeves, 2013).The evidence focuses on a particular research. This chapter is ofgreat significance to the reader since it clearly narrates theauthor’s frustration with regards to social science researchcurrent state. He says that his often encounters are on research thatis much descriptive but in the end, they tend to become inappropriatein their explanation because of their claims. The most claims thatare of concern are the claims that are causal, indirect, and obvious.Insufficiency in studies and studies are said to be because ofexplicit claims. The author’s argument is to research warranty andclaims that are put forth by the acquired research documents. Theresearch documents are supposed to be logic and simple in conclusion.He investigated that 20% of individuals conducting a social scienceresearch were not able to explain the manner in which they have drawntheir simple conclusion (Gorard, 2013). The author accuses theresearchers in social sciences of incapability of comprehendingstatistical analyses that are the core of their research warranty andclaims. In this chapter, Gorard (2013) has many claims and assertionsthat seem to be controversial, but it reflects on research designsimportance on research claim and warranty.
Thisbook shows us the best practices in research design that when onceacknowledged by researchers, it will have a positive effect on theirdesign and warranty claims. The author advice the researchers touphold standards and stop the use of poorly tested interventions.Such interventions are relevant in criminology where there isincreasing value on evidence-based involvements(McKenney & Reeves, 2013).This involves many tasks that the author intervenes and comes withthe best framework and practice.
Ihave learnt that once I have a proper design, I will not be misled byendemic and futile research, market claims that are inflated and havepoor evaluations. Interventions work the best in studies that arepioneered than studies involving general practices(Stevens, 2012).Thereis a high number of researchers who make comparisons in a place overa period based on a particular single observation. I learnt that whenI am constructing a research question, I should convert the problemstatement into individualized single puzzles that should be addressedby use of existing techniques. Before conducting research, theresearcher should choose a subgroup so that they should be labeled ina subsequent analysis(Huber, 2011).Research questions and design correlates in that both may evolve inthe course of the project. I also learn that one should develop abetter plan to conduct an ideal study. When planned, we can solve thedaily obstacles we face and solve them. When this is done, theresearch can decide if there are possibilities of conducting thestudy or not (Huber,2011).Just like the Dr. XY in the his discussions, I have known to carryout meta-analysis of the methodology. The study has also inspired menot to consider things at face value and progressively strive to readbetween the lines, to develop acuriosity for further knowledge so that I can start identifying thedifferent ways in which I can add to the existing body of knowledge.I have learnt to analyze them, critique them and see if the previousstudies have not captured some details and identify the means ofcreating niche for oneself.
Sage.Rallis, S. & Rossman, G. (2012). The research journey:Introduction to inquiry. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Thebook by Rallis and Rossman titled the research journey: Introductionto the inquiry has been designed to nurture an inquiry-minded personconsidering that it prepares an undergraduate to develop a conceptualframework for carrying out inquiry projects that are associated withongoing discussion in a field. The authors of the book undertook toexamine the various ways to know and to show how a student canidentify the right research question for a project. Moreover, thebook is centered towards the ability of a student to come up witharguments and back them with evidence, make well-versed designchoices, take part in reflective discussions, and produce awell-constituted proposal or project report. Each of the chaptersbegins with a set of critical questions accompanied by dialoguesinvolving some fictional graduates exploring the uncertainties aroundtheir inquiry projects. Moreover, the book contains an end of chapterreview questions the students can use to revisit what they havelearned.
Ineach of the chapters, the authors begin by giving a dialogue with theexample of the first chapter where five students who have justenrolled for their graduate studies discuss on how the seminar meantto introduce them into academia should be structured. Raul, who hasjoined the school of business, sees the seminar as an opportunity toquestion everything around him, as he has been looking for ways ofquestion the world. However, Kevin who is a high school principledisagrees with Raul as he feels he feels issues should be presenteddirectly and not by evoking students to think. Therefore, the authorshave used the dialogue to build the discussion on what an inquiry isconsidering that the students seem to be asking themselves what ismeant by the term knowledge. The aspect of knowledge beingproblematic or troubling ones understanding should open the space forpeople to talk openly regarding inquiry (Gunnlaugson, Bai, Sarath, &Scott, 2014). The authors put across Scheffler thoughts that for aperson to know something, he or she must believe it is true, haveevidence that what he knows is true, and it is true. The first twoconditions appear to be direct because for one to know or believesomething is true, he or she needs to be backed with evidence.However, the challenge comes when determining what holds as evidenceconsidering that it has to be assessed by someone. Thus, the core ofthese assessments of evidence that leads to knowing fall under theprocess on inquiry.
Inquirycan be used to confirm what people already know considering that, itproblematizes knowledge by suggesting what people already know to bethe truth may not necessary be correct. Thus, when a personundertakes an inquiry process, he or she may result in theconfirmation of the existing knowledge, elaboration of the knowledgeor the generation of new knowledge. The book defines inquiry as anatural process that human beings have engaged in from the time theywere born provoked by people’s curiosity. In that, people try tomake meaning of the world via a sense-making process that involvesthe construction of one’s way of understanding the human-designedand the natural world (Chitman-Booker, & Kopp, 2013). Afterward,people shift from using their personal sense that they were born withto explicitly adopting tools of logical inquiry. Therefore, it leadsto a more refined meaning of inquiry that equates it to theinvolvement in a sensible process of curiosity that streamlinesstrategic investigations and explorations. The third chapter of thebook on “more than one way to get there,” asserts that everybodyin the society has moved through an inquiry from babies, doctors,scholars, laborers, teachers, and managers among many others. Itfurther gives the purpose of inquiry as criticizing, confirming, orcreating knowledge, processes that lead to learning of an individual.Learning results in a deeper understanding since people collect andconvert data into information and eventually use the information toform knowledge. Rallis and Rossman elaborate that the main role ofthe book is to engage students through their learning process bysuggesting activities and readings that nurture critical questioningof one’s knowledge and to embolden them to see that knowledge islimited.
Thebook offers quality information that is not only essential forstudents pursuing their undergraduate degree but also for individualsundertaking the various course at any educational level. Studentsundertaking projects among other institutions that need to carry outa project will benefit the most from the book because of theexploration methodologies and inquiry concepts that have been wellelaborated by the authors. Moreover, the author uses dialogues at thebeginning of all the chapters to show students that research can beappealing and fun, thus helping to change the notion on mostundergraduates. Research is important, especially for undergraduatestudents, because it helps to produce excellent students with superbanalytical skills (Demeter, Murphy, & Zittel, 2014). Thus,encouraging students to take part in research helps to foster theircreativity and eventually to transform them into influentialindividuals in the society. The authors seem to know the essence ofresearch in people live because each of the chapters offers more thanone reflective activity that offers guidance for readers to apply theprinciples addressed and to work together in groups. That way,students can develop a theoretical framework for a project and learnto come up with knowledge via a logical inquiry. The presentedactivities in the book assist in the navigation of the entire inquiryprocess from selecting a problem, to research question assortment. Itis important for a student to learn how to reason like a scholar,especially in this generation where the internet has become thebeginning and the end of research among many students. The authorshave done an excellent job by elaborating what is perceived to be themost complex part of the various education system in a simple manner,thus unblocking the thinking and writing of worried graduatestudents.
Inconclusion, Rallis and Rossman (2012), through their book, help togroom inquiry-minded students who can tackle various research worksin any of the education fields. The current generation of studentsseems to have developed a negative attitude towards research, anattitude that can be overturned by reading the book. In addition tothe various research methodology class textbooks used by students,they should also use this book because it will make the others easyto comprehend. In fact, the book can be recommended to all scholarsfrom those pursuing their first degrees to those pursuing theirmaster degree to doctorate students at the dissertation stage.
Justas captured in the themes, I also thought for a long time thatdissertation could only be presented in five chapters as below:
ChapterII: Literature Review
Whendoing the presentation, I learnt a lot and one of the things that Ilearnt was that the chapters could be flexible. I learnt also how towrite every area of the study and it appeared as easy as thepresentation given by Dr. Rossi.
Chitman-Booker,L., & Kopp, K. (2013). The5Es of inquiry-based science.Huntington Beach, Calif: Shell Education.
Creswell,J. W. (2013). Researchdesign: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.Sage publications.
Creswell,J. W. (2013). Qualitativeinquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.Sage.
Demeter,T., Murphy, K., & Zittel, C. (2014). Conflictingvalues of inquiry: Ideologies of epistemology in early modern Europe.Boston: Brill.
Gorard,S. (2013). Researchdesign: Creating robust approaches for the social sciences.Sage.
Gorard,S. (2014). A proposal for judging the trustworthiness of researchfindings. Radicalstatistics., 110,47-59.
Gunnlaugson,O., Bai, H., Sarath, E., & Scott, C. (2014). Contemplativelearning and inquiry across disciplines.Albany: State University of New York Press.
Huber,P. J. (2011). Robuststatistics (pp.1248-1251). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Marshall,C., & Rossman, G. B. (2011). Designingqualitative research.Sage.
McKenney,S., & Reeves, T. C. (2013). Conductingeducational design research.Routledge.
Rallis,S. F., & Rossman, G. B. (2012). Theresearch journey: Introduction to inquiry.New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Ritchie,J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.).(2013). Qualitativeresearch practice: A guide for social science students andresearchers.Sage.
Stevens,J. P. (2012). Appliedmultivariate statistics for the social sciences.Routledge.