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Rising from the Plains

Risingfrom the Plains

Risingfrom the Plains

Humankindhas always depended on the landscape for their existence. The landhas been supporting make kind in every sphere of life. As a result,this has brought forth the gift studying geology. Through research,the problem associated with the land has at least been solved, andpossible resources have been maximally utilizing and exhaustion ofvaluable minerals. However, human activities such as mining,contraction, settlement, and forming have distorted the land. Notonly Man, but also natural disasters, like an earthquake, an eruptionof volcanic mountains, severe flooding, and the wind havesignificantly ruined it (Robie, &amp Hemingway, 1995). Animals arenot left behind they cause soil erosion in an area where there areover-grazing and raining plants mostly pests. In details, this essaywill majorly review the science ideas depict from “Risingfrom the Plains”as McPhee put it, though it`s a historical book. Also, it shalldiscuss the connection of knowledge of science that my lecturer hastaught me by giving a solid example.

McPheewas much concerned with geology. He points out several sciences thatrelate to geology. One, He highlights the formation of Coal bymatter. Coal is a black, or brownish hard substance that occurs inrock strata in veins or layers that are called coal seams or coalbeds. It can be regarded as a metamorphic rock because of beingexposed to heat and pressure. Besides, it is believed that it startedforming during Noah`s flood this occurred millions of years ago(Robie, &amp Hemingway, 1995). The archeologist discovered a giantlike plant and big animal for instance dinosaurs. Once the remainsof these plants and animal decayed, they formed a layer at the bottomof the swamps.

Additionally,dirt and water started to pile up from the decaying matter, and itcreated layers. As years passed by, pressure and heat began to buildupon the substance. A chemical process that involves oxidation andreduction of ions, as well as a physical procedure, like color andshape change omits oxygen gives out coal. Coal is widely used invitality generation. In the early 20thcentury, it was used as a fuel in moving train turbans. After fuelheat water, it produces steam, which is compressed at high pressureto turn the train turbines in the engine. Moreover, steam coal isalso known as thermal fuel and is used for the production of power insome countries like China, while cooking petroleum is used in steelproduction. Significantly, it is also used in combination of aluminarefineries, paper manufacturers, and as a chemical in pharmaceuticalindustries.

Theauthor sees how the landscape is barren, especially, which containsrocks and abundant minerals. The landscape may not be appealing inoutward appearance, but might centrally comprise valuable mineralsbeneath it. Examples are like gold, copper, silver, lead, iron,aluminum and zinc, which are usually extracted from the core througha process called metallurgy. Fossils fuel like, petroleum and coalare also minerals. A rock crystal can be defined as any naturallyoccurring inorganic material that has a definite shape andcharacteristics of physical properties (Robie, &amp Hemingway,1995). Notably, minerals have their properties that define them.

Theyas well have crystal form, which is expressed outwardly in an orderlyform of arrangements of atoms in it. For example, a solid table salt,which is a combination of sodium chloride, breaks in cubes. Mineralshave a unique feature of hardness making them hard to break, forinstance, diamonds, which is known to be the most difficult metal.They are lust, which means they are reflective and are classified asbearing metallic luster that is shiny, or nonmetallic that is dull.Minerals have an extraordinary identical color, but other ones occurin a different color, such as quartz. Finally, the mineral hasfeatures and cleavage, meaning that some of it can break easily alonghorizontal planes (Landforms, 1999). They are prone to breakingbecause of the way their atoms are arranged. Seemingly, minerals havedifferent uses depending on their properties. Some metals areutilized in the electrical field since they are good conductor ofcurrent. While others can generate heat hence used as fuel conducts.Furthermore, minerals have led to civilization, since they are usedto manufacture sophisticated equipment.

Thebook highlights how layer accumulates to form sediments. At thispoint, the author brings out the aspect of land formation, and howsome physical features are developed. For this to take place,weathering of rock materials and erosion must occur so as to depositthem. Weathering is a natural or chemical process that causes changeon the surface of the earth. Apparently, this happens when a surfaceof the rock is exposed on the exterior of the ground, thus making itvenerable to water, the sun, and air. Physical weathering involvesbreaking of rocks into smaller pieces. It takes places in threeprocesses, which are frost action, abrasion, and exfoliation.Chemical weathering procedure involves breaking down of rockparticles chemically (Landforms, 1999). The primary agents areoxygen, rainwater, carbon dioxide, and acids produced by plants, pluswater. There are three types of chemical processes, namely oxidation,hydration, and carbonation

Afterthe above process, the material is therefore eroded and depositedelsewhere to form an individual feature. Mainly, gravity is theprincipal agent of erosion however, other causes such as the wind,running water, glaciers, waves, and rain may be involved.Consequently, this forms unique features a good example is a beachfeature. Ridge and tunnels are created by the interaction of tidesand currents. Also, cups are crescent- shaped that set up when thebeach water mix with shingles and sand. Spits are yet another featurethat is formed when a sudden occurrence of the river changes itscourse direction. The material is then regularly deposited in theriver resulting in the formation of a long bank of shingles and sand.

McPheepoints out that human activities and natural occurrences have ruinedthe landscape. All of the ages, the man, has always made a shelterwhere he can take refuge from external factors such as weather andmostly security. Furthermore, specialized people are constructingmarvelous architects` structures. Construction of roads, railways,harbors, and buildings in this present time have become the order ofthe day. Significantly, people have ventured in many discoveries andresearch to create sophisticated and contemporary architects.Nevertheless, this has distorted the environment, and alsoafforestation in the aim of creating spaces for construction. As aresult, this has influenced the eco-system and something terrible mayhappen.

Asrain depends on vegetation, it may lose hence landscape willexperience desertification. The excavation of landscape, forconstruction to take place, may result in an open-cast, or a deepdish, which will be risky and dangerous when filled with water.Consequently, this affects the soil structure and mineralcomposition, which are vital to plants, and insects. Millions ofyears ago, the eruption of volcanic took place (even now, though manyare dormant), and the formation of mountains through faulting andfolding. These predetermined how land wound occurs. As a result,other features were created due to these occurrences. The Wind alsoplays a significant role in the formation of the feature in thedesert, such as dunes, sandstorm, sheets, and ripples. Apparently,the type of soil and fertility depends on the kind and nature of rockbeneath the surface. Soil can be described as the material thatcovers the surface of the earth. It has several elements, likeorganic matter, air, minerals, living organism, and water (Jenny,1994). McPhee acknowledges that the soil is good since animals wouldget pasture. Soil formation has a source it is when the rockweathers and breaks down into smaller particles as time goes by, upto the point where the material are in smooth form. These littleparticles of soil may be carried away by water, the wind, or movingglaciers.

Peoplecannot exist if there was not soil. Most importantly, it is beingused for farming of agriculture products, either edible or anotherpurpose. In construction, it is a raw material. Farming is anessential knowledge of science which almost everyone comprehends.

Finally,McPhee notes that rocks also are significant. They occur naturallyand is solid aggregated by minerals. Most rocks have similar featuresof hardness where they are used in the construction of a railwayline. In the formation of stones, it occurs in three different forms,one sedimentary rock which are formed through the slow accumulationof sediments. A good example is the mud on the riverbed and the sandon the beach. Secondly, igneous rocks, they are characterized withcrystallized, which comes from molten magma. These types can be seenintra-plot hotspots or in the ridges of the ocean. Thirdly are thesemetamorphic rocks. (Meybeck, 1987). Profoundly, this type is formeddue to heat and pressure in the earth`s crust, which changes thecomposition and fabric from the original state. The rocks are as wellutilized in the construction of railways, building. The extractioninvolves large machines and also simple tools.

Inconclusion, this paper is intensely based on science, which can berelated to our day for learning purposes. The book, which the articleis based on emphasizes on how soil is for thought and not for theobvious way. The author discovers the importance of fertile soil,which are significant for agriculture uses. Man and animalsdesperately rely on the land for their survival. The land as it mayappear not appealing, it is always rich in the minerals that are ofessential for agriculture. Moreover, the mineral and rocks haveunique features and of great help in this earth. However, man hashighly distorted the land through his activities. Naturally, disasterand environmental factor are not left out due to the effectlandscape. This book depicts science. Additionally, the book outlineshow science has played a major role in the planets.

ReferencesJenny,H. (1994). Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitativepedology. Courier Corporation.Meybeck,M. (1987). Global chemical weathering of surficial rocks estimatedfrom river dissolved loads. American Journal of Science, 287(5),401-428.Robie,R. A., &amp Hemingway, B. S. (1995). Thermodynamic properties ofminerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar (10^ 5Pascal’s) pressure and higher temperatures (No. 2131). USGPO forsale by US Geological Survey, Information Services,Landforms,E. S. P. (1999). Salt weathering: influence of evaporation rate,super-saturation, and crystallization pattern. Earth Surf. Proce