• Uncategorized

Riverbend City



Introductionto the Community Aid

Followingthe previous activities such as rail derailment within the city’sstructure, there were numerous interactions with the community toprovide solutions that will help the community members. Over time,some of the needs pointed out had discussions and the city fundedthem to oversee their success. However, the members of the communityhad more grievances they felt that needed attention from theleadership of the city. The left priorities of a metabolic syndrome,issues regarding teen pregnancies, and a community garden need theattention of our NGO to help the people put their lives on track.

RiverbendCity Community Aid is an independent body introduced specifically tohelp the people of . Their three priorities are theultimate objectives of the body, and all the activities of theorganization will be non-commercial, and non-profitable. The fundingof the projects will solely be from private sources, and no publicfunds or city’s development fund will need to finance theactivities of the organization. More so, the community involvementremains at the top of the work structure of the organization, as thepeople of the community have the much-needed knowledge on the bestways to solve the existent problems that the city’s leadershiputterly ignored. The organization will take such formidable effortsto push for sustainable development for the community, whoseinteractions will not only deal with the mentioned priorities butalso with additional related needs of the people of the RiverbendCity. Community Aid as a private organization drawsits efforts similar as to other NGOs to relieve the suffering in thecommunity, protect the environmental setting, promote the interestsof the poor, and undertake the necessary community developments. Thespirit of voluntarism will have inspiration from the provisions ofsocial justice. In the social justice, there are universal values andmanifold declarations that are cherished by the Human Rights. It is,therefore, imperative that Community Aid works under acertain instruct following the provisions. Nonetheless, flexibility,democracy, secular existence, and non-profit basis are the leadingworking principles of the organization servicing the community ofRiverbend. Lastly, just like any other organization, Community Aid has a well-organized internal structure and has laiddown operation methods. The Board of Governors forms the basis andorigin for crucial decisions for the operations of the project.

PartOne: Develop Governance Issues

Theconsultation with the Board of Directors establishes the expectationsof the project, amid developing structures to handle the communitywork. The outcomes of the project include a solid construction of thecommunity garden, set to a well-selected location in the city. Ametabolic syndrome and the solution for teen`s pregnancy issues alsoform the discussion within the Board of Community Aid.It is an expectation of all the workers within the Community Aid organization that the three priorities are accomplishedand exist as sustainable development projects for the particularcommunity. The Board expressed concerns that community participationforms the leading working principle. Our commitment to the communityaims to call a weekly meeting with the community members, and allcommunity representatives must avail themselves to all thesemeetings. At the first meeting, the introduction to work ethics, setstandards, and the esteemed cooperation from all parties will have anincreased emphasis. Mores so, the meetings and communications withthe community members will be an open chance to discuss theaccomplishment of the mission, goal, and vision of Community Aid. Additionally, the initial meetings and assessment ofthe situations on the ground will be of particular help to theorganization to help develop the goal, mission, and vision for theorganization to follow a specific inquiry for the needs of thecommunity.

Protocolsfor Ethical Leadership

Thefollowing are the recommendations made to the Board of Governorsregarding the working principles and processed followed to ensure anethical work relating. It is important to note that these standardsand work relations reflect the best interests of the organization of Community Aid and also look after the best interest ofthe community based on their cultures and customs. The researchers inthe field looking collecting for the data to use in the projectshould sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement or any other binding contractthat explains their privacy rules, and things they can have a say onregarding the project (Montero,2013).Investigating policies on data policies is underway and the datacollected can only be of service to the NGO to develop a best workingpolicy for the people of Riverbend community. Additionally, the Community Aid works to assist those with no or nolittle interest regarding their community. Such groups will bemonitored to align them with similar interest as the concerned peopleso as to avail as much participation as possible. Our organizationplaces a high mandate on responsibility, public mindedness, andservice. In doing so, the overall aim is doing good, and as a workingand ethical approach, all members of the organization are willing tointegrate self-development and service to the public, balance selfand public needs, and work on a finer, broader, and higher publicservice platform. Public money shall at no instance be misused ordiverted for any selfish purposes, but will be treated withaccountability as any other public fund. There will be an exhibitionof care and responsibility towards the environment throughout theactivities of our organization, more so with the development of thecommunity garden (Montero,2013).Additionally, the workers under Community Aidrecognize that the firm holds them responsible for their activitiesand their perception of the public of NGOs. The organization willwork beyond any political scope, without fostering any politicalagenda. Referencing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, thefirm will not violate any person’s basic human rights endowed tothe person. More so, the firm will recognize that all the people inthe community are born free with the same level of equality whileaddressing their dignity (Montero,2013).Our organization will be sensitive to the religion, customs, thetraditions, values and the culture of the overall Riverbendcommunity. Supporting the family-based society and valuing theintegrity of the family unit is imperative since as studied, theRiverbend community values the social unit of the family. Religiousfreedom is an additional provision necessary to maintain an ethicalworking relationship (Montero,2013).Transparency and accountability extend to the government, thepartners, donors, beneficiaries, and even parties interested in theproject except for proprietary information and personnel matters(Montero,2013).The NGO will make an apparent effort to inform all public membersabout the project, the origin of the funds, and the uses. By doingso, the basic financial records, listings of officers, governingstructures, and partnerships will be accessible and open to publicscrutiny. Not only will the organization be accountable to thefunding sources and the administrations, but also to the staff of thefirm, and the public in a broad perspective. Legality andtruthfulness dictate the organization always offer accurateinformation regarding any matter in question. Moreover, RiverbendCity Community Aid will not engage in any unlawful activities underthe laws of the land where it organizes its works. The firm isstrongly opposed to, or even being a contributing partner to any formof bribery or corruption or financial misappropriations. The firmenforces a confidence policy within its workers where a worker canbring forth evidence confidently regarding misconduct by a fellowemployee without any fear. Laws of incorporation, equal employmentopportunities, gender equality, health and safety standards,copyright legislation, privacy rules, and trademarks are among thelegal provisions that the firm will enforce to maintain a legalframework for its operations. The organization has a full mandate toperform any corrective action and remedy for any staff member caughtwith evidence in the act of wrongdoing in the name of Community Aid.

Methodsto Use to Apply the Principles and Policies and Communication Planfor the Organization

Tomaintain a well-defined working structure, CommunityAid will apply the following measures within its governance.Integrity forms the basic provision to define our organization asself-governing, voluntary, independent, organized, non-governmental,and non-profit. These characteristics are self-evident to much moreso to our Ngo since our governance depends on them. Hence, theyshould remain basic as the operating ground for the conduct of ourprofession.


Ournot-for-profit operations mean that all surplus resources will beutilized to aid the organization accomplish its objectives and statedmission. No income will be directed to the self-gain of the directorsof the firm, or any other employee of the firm (Hargreaves,2014).Consequently, the firm will not operate for the basic need of doingtrade or business unrelated to the mission, vision, and goal. Thegoverning body and the people in charge of running the organizationwill prevent any activity aimed at distributing profits, assets, andresources to individuals in the operations of the project or when theorganization finishes to work with the Riverbend community.


RiverbendCity Community Aid will not be a part of, and will not be subject toany governmental or intergovernmental agency (Hargreaves,2014).Political independence is a key step and the firm will ensure thatit does not align or affiliate to any political party or cause, evenwhen the two have a common political cause that intertwines with themission, vision, and goal of the organization. The politicalsubjectivity means that the NGO shall not fulfill anypolitically-inclined mandate that is beyond the mission and objectiveof the body. Our organization will not be subject to utilization as aforeign policy instrument by the current political administration.Not unless the interests of any government coincide with the missionsand objectives of the organization, the latter shall not tolerate anygovernment policies.


Theorganized structure of the organization will be crucial toimplementing the given ethical provisions. Organized documents toproof the legality of the organization and its operations, anexistent and functional executive board, working staff, documentedmeetings and activities will show the detailed structure of ourorganization. By-laws, the constitution of the organization,memorandum of association and other documents will clearly define ourmission, the governing structure, the objectives, rules of procedure,membership rights and their obligations (Hargreaves,2014).With proof of the existence of such records, compliance with thevarious requirements governing the operations of an NGO will be aneasy task. It is important to note that these organization effortsand structured ways of performing the operations are mandatory forany NGO whether it has recognition or not from any government. Hence,our operations cannot commence until we have surety that we meet allthe stated requirements.

Self-governanceand Independence

Thevision in place, mission, policies, objectives, operating principleswill be dependent from any motives from the donors, the financiers,political influence, other NGOs, or any for-profit corporation.Through self-governance, the operations of CommunityAid will be autonomous and will follow the governance structure laidwithin the firm. The control activities will be developed within thefirm.


Ourorganization does not exist because the law needs it to, but itexists from a private initiative and interest to work with theRiverbend community. The voluntary work is done by individuals chosento follow a common interest and concern. Voluntary principles andvalues are the primary drivers for the work that Community Aid does with the community. Targeted people in thecommunity and other supporters ought to contribute willingly to thecause of the NGO. Their meaningful contributions will help the NGOaccomplish their mission and objectives. The governance board andthose leading the organization will work on volunteering capacity,for no pay.


Thecommunication process within the organization follows a hierarchicalline. The leaders of the firm, more so the Board of Governors isamong the topmost and key decision makers for the organization. Theinformation flow and decision flow within the organization is crucialto ensure that the information is timely, useful, and easy to extractwhen needed. The organization established a formal communicationchannel. The downward channel of communication is the basic, but theorganization utilizes other communication channels such as upward,diagonal, lateral information flows. The downwards transmission ofthe communication in the organization will help the Board ofGovernors and the managers transmit work information to thesubordinates. The usefulness of the downward information flow existsin providing feedback to the staff, offering instructions,communicating to the employees how to accomplish a given objective,informing the staff of the vision and mission of the organizationwhile working with (Schmitz,2012).More so, the communication process will highlight the areas ofattention for all the workers. The upward flow of communication willfacilitate easy accomplishment of the standards set for theoperations of the NGO on the cultures of the people (Schmitz,2012).The upward flow of communication in Community Aidoffers feedback on how well the organization is functioning.Additionally, our organization allows the upward communicationschannel to convey the problem and performance levels regarding theproject community. Our organization fosters lateral communicationamong working peers. The reason for allowing such communicationwithin the organization is that the communication saves time, thereis better task coordination within the members, increased cooperationamong the members, and offers a simpler means of sharing andaccessing information (Schmitz,2012).The method of communication also helps our workers manage conflictsamongst themselves as they may have varied opinions on how toaccomplish a given task for the organization (Schmitz,2012).

ProjectPart 2: Community Presentation Part One

Ourmission describes our existence and what we hope to accomplish. It isthe foundation and frame of reference for all our engagements andhence, we have an obligation to utilize available resources toaccomplish the mission. Our mission is “continually create asociety of principled grassroots people who continuously work for theconstant improvement of their livelihoods, along with equipping themwith necessary tools to do so.”

Ourmission is in every way looks to benefit the community we are workingon the project. Our mission statement is well known by the members ofthe Board of Governors who fully work to support and understand. Thepriorities given to the community regarding a community garden, asolution for the teen pregnancies, a garden, and a metabolic syndromeare conversely addressed in our mission. By developing a communitygarden to the people of , we will offer them a placewhere they can continually improve their lives. The garden will actas a leisure park for them, and can even attract fees to the city’sannual revenue to help in the development of other social amenities.A solution for the rampant teen pregnancies will reduce the existentproblem as the teens will now further their education instead ofraising children. More so, the organization will offercountermeasures to prevent the teen pregnancies such as educating themasses on contraceptive usage, protected sex, among other measures tocombat the teen pregnancies.

Thebenefits of the programs to the community in question range fromoffering them solutions to the problems their leaders ignored. Fromthe word go, the programs in place will build the people besidesoffering a sustainable solution to improve their lives. For instance,the teenage pregnancies within the adolescents of the towncontinually drag the development of the town. Our diverse programswill handle the cases by a series of steps. Education within themasses, raising awareness, offering preventive measures, giving aidto the affected, educating the adults on methods of setting standardsand acting as role models, all at a free cost will be hugelybeneficial to the families in . Additional benefits tothe families extend even after the completion of the project by theorganization such as in the case of the community garden (Cnaan,2011).

Thediverse composition of the people of the community will dictate aprogram that accommodates all members in the city. Hence, it is anadvantage since our program will be as diverse as possible, offeringmultiple choices and benefits to the different people. As such, theprograms we have for the population will achieve an objective ofhandling all groups equally without any discrimination or favors toothers. Evaluation stands to be among the top checkers for thesuccess of the program. By performing evaluations, the team will havean accomplishment checklist to gauge whether the activities done forthe community remain consistent with the present mission of theorganization, analyze the outcomes of the beneficiaries of theprogram more so the teen pregnancies, analyze the totals costs inrelation to the completion of the projects such as the communitygarden for the residents of . Our evaluation processwill the team make informed decisions whether new services should beavailed or not, and will in general review the efficacy andeffectiveness of the completed projects referring closely to themission of the Community Aid working with the city.

ProjectPart 3: Community Presentation Part 2: Mission, Vision, and ValuesImplementation

Theproject has from its Board of Governors developed an articulatemission, vision statements together with values that are closely knitwith the needs of the community. The mission of the organization is“continually create a society of principled grassroots people whocontinuously work for the constant improvement of their livelihoods,along with equipping them with necessary tools to do so.” Thevision is “to set overwhelming community service standards bypreserving and repairing the human nature and delivering humanity toall people of the world to mark a decade of life transforminginitiatives.” The values of the organization follow an internallyorganized work ethics that represent the professional operatingstandards for an NGO. The leading working values dictate that allworkers perform their work consistently with the mission of theorganization. Since the mission is the leading blueprint of theactivities of the organization, all work sessions must have areference to the mission of the organization. Efficacy andeffectiveness of the work objectives will have a checklist uponcompletion of an objective. Feedback will be imperative from thebeneficiaries of the various projects and also from all thestakeholders. Our organization will conduct all the activitiesprofessionally centered on the vision of serving humankind. Theorganizations will spend a full 65 percent of all expenditure onprogram activities, theoretically more than 80 percent including thefundraising costs. If the 65 percent expenditure cost is not met, theorganization must give a consistent reason as to why there arereasonable higher overhead and fundraising costs than the set limits.Expected explanations with proof may include increased administrativeand fundraising costs of a newly established organization withadditional explanations restricted to restrictions from donors. Thegovernance plan, with all the directors and the trustees, holds withhigh regards the cultural values of the organization, the mission,and vision.

Leadingthe community through discussion to articulate the mission, vision,and values follow an aim to help the community understand the exactsolutions that the organization can offer them. There are variousprocesses and integration procedures that the organization willexhibit to the community members, with the aim of supporting themission, vision, and values of the organization. By so doing, ourorganization aims to walk the community through our processes to givethem a platform upon which they can offer their input to theaccomplishment of our mission, vision, and values of ourorganization. We will ask the community members to chip into ourprojects and counter our solutions with what they think will suittheir needs. For instance, the teen pregnancy issue in is among the leading platforms through which we will need an inputfrom the locals, more so those in medical practice. The communitymember should present meaningful data to our researchers to come upwith solutions. Additionally, there are specific measures that we canonly rely upon that the community members will perform to reduce themenace of teenage pregnancies. Our program will have a session withschools and community centers to explain the devastating effects ofteenage pregnancies to the children. However, we also require theadults in the community to engage directly with their children in sextalks. Upon doing so, the adults in the community will have apositive contribution to the accomplishment of the mission of theorganization. Such contributions such as encouraging the teachers atthe various schools to take extra efforts to encourage the childrenon the positive results of safe sex will be paramount efforts incollaboration with the efforts pulled together by the organization.More so, parents have a duty to teach their children the importanceof safe sex as soon as the teachers introduce sexual topics atschools. By doing so, the teenagers will be surrounded by anenvironment where safe sex is highly encouraged, and upon seeing thepositive results of engaging in safe sex, there will be definitedrops in the number of teen pregnancies in the city. Thecollaboration with the community members to help in accomplishing themission of the organization extend further by training the parentsand the adults in the community on how to offer a listening year totheir children who think they are turning to be sexually active. Ifhuge numbers of parents and adults attend the programs to teach themon how to deal with their sexually active children, our organizationwill be a step ahead in accomplishing the set objectives for thepeople of .

ProjectPart 4: Developing Collaborative Relationships

Ourorganization has no intentions of working as a sole unit in solvingthe problems facing the people of . There are communityorganizations that have the real driving force to take us a stepfurther to the accomplishment of our goals. Such evaluation followsour mission and work values as we intend to work with the grassrootspeople to bring along the sustainable development to the community.Hence, we need to get in touch with specific key representors of thecommunity so as to hugely impact positive change to Riverbend (Cnaan,2011).Our organization has categorized the specific people to help assessthe situations at the ground and monitor progress of the programs inplace. For instance, the problem of teen pregnancies requires we workwill all people in the community. We involve the teenagers, theirparents, the schools and their administrations, the hospital outletsand medical centers offering maternity services we also link withthe legal department to control the illegal abortions and shut downillegally operating clinics that help teens give birth. Thedevelopment of the community garden will have prior consultation withthe land’s office in the city, the city’s development committees,legal offices to secure contracts, and the architectural offices,engineers, and landscapers to deliver a meaningful community gardento the people of the city. Focusing on the development of a solutionto the metabolic syndrome, our organization will focus on workingclosely with the health officers in the town, nutritionists to adviceon bets nutrients for the populace. We will also work with the farmproducers and learn about the chemicals they use in their foodproduction for the people of the city. The general population willalso have an invitation to advise them on the best feeding methodsthat will help eliminate the feeding disorders in the city. Hence, inthe long run, the organization will develop programs to flow with thework structure of the mentioned parties to come up with optimumsolutions that will offer sustainable development for the society,even after the work of the organization ends in this city (Tropman,2012).

Towork successively, it is imperative to appreciate the differentworking formats and organization structures of the organizationsmentioned above. Working with the local authorities to stop theillegal operation of clinics that deliver the teen pregnanciesdepends wholly on the speed and actions taken by the localauthorities relying on the data they collect from theirinvestigators. To respond to such differences, it is pivotal that ourorganization forms a pool of common interests with the authorities toexchange information to counter the existing problem. Plans forcollaborative relationships extend to the community leaders who knowwhat policies to impose on their people. There are particularapproaches to deal with the apparent differences in religion, as somereligions do not encourage sex talks for their young ones. Somereligions place sexual activities as a taboo hence, we structuredspecific solutions for such groups to help their children learn thefull picture of engaging in unprotected sex. Our plan while workingwith such different population is to approach the leaders of suchpopulaces, such as the religious leaders and develop an all-inclusiveplan to counter with the problem. As such, the religious leaders willhave specific inputs to the plans that refer to our missions, andthen administer the packages we develop to the various religiousfollowers (Tropman,2012).Same as the different religious views, the city has varieddemographic compositions. The dense areas of the city need moreresources and time to effect the much-needed help. However, it doesnot mean that our organization will abandon the scarcely populatedregions and develop only the heavily occupied sections. To thecontrary, we develop budget appropriations that cater for each regionfairly, in manpower, finances, and time. The same will follow in thedevelopment of the community garden. The underlying fact of thenecessity of a community garden is that all members of the communitywill have easy access to the garden, and entry is for all with norestrictions. Therefore, the team dealing with the creation of acommunity garden has placed all factors in consideration, and thegarden will be placed centrally in the city, a location that allmembers can easily access, and from all corners of the city. Theproject for the metabolic syndrome will cater for all people in thecommunity, those with good feeding programs and also thoseencountering difficulties in balancing their feeding program. Bydoing so, our firm appreciates the differences and diversities ofpeople existing harmoniously in Riverbend-and our mission and visionaims to unite them like never before by the developments we avail to.

Moreover,forging positive working relationships with the various organizationsmentioned above will involve informing them of the goals andobjectives our organization has for their population. As a first stepin accomplishing our mission and vision, the local organizations willtranslate the mission and vision to the local in some much betterelaborate ways that may include incorporating our projects to theirprojects that service the people. That way, the mission of theorganization will be achieved, and the local organization will havegained popularity among the people for taking care of their needs andmeeting their demands.

Workingwith the dignified local structures means that our working valueshave to respect the values of the other parties. By doing so, ourorganization can only work on mutual consent with the otherprocedures. The success of our cooperation depends on how well wepresent our mission and vision to them, outlining the immenseadvantages to the problems of the people. There are various directadvantages that will emerge from our collaboration and they rangefrom offering job opportunities for those members willing to work onvoluntary basis, which will improve on their experience and add morechances for them to acquire permanent paying jobs. Moreover, we willprovide a pool of shared information that may help the city’sadministration to make more sound decisions regarding thedistribution of the available social amenities. The community gardenoffers the following benefits to the people of increased sense of community stewardship and ownership, there isfostered the development of a spirit of identity among a particularcommunity, the garden will be a unifying factor for people ofdifferent races, class, age, and religion. Additionally, the gardenwill grow leaders, and it will be a pivotal point for any communityorganizing events. The garden will aid in crime prevention in thatthe people can meet their neighbors there and get a chance to knoweach other, the garden will present the people with a chance andlocation to build neighborhood blocks, there will be an increase inthe eyes in the streets and police officers may use the garden tomonitor people with an aim of crime prevention. The garden will offerimmense cultural opportunities as analyzed by our organization.People can produce crops within the garden the grounds will provideinter-cultural exchanges amid exposure to the different generationsof people mingling in the garden. The community garden will also actas a meeting point of people talking different languages with acommon goal of enjoying the facilities provides by the garden,fostering unity within the populace. The garden will be a learningcenter for many youths and will increase the food production for theresidents. More so, the garden will present healthier feeding optionsfor families as locally produced food lowers the rate of asthmainfection for the children. Furthermore, the availability of greenspace has immense benefits to the people of . Thegarden will add the aesthetic beauty to the city which will heightenthe people’s awareness and appreciation of living organisms. Thegarden filters rainwater helping clean the surrounding environment.The garden will restore the oxygen levels giving the people clean airand reducing the levels of air pollution. The existence of the gardenwill give the residents a place to recycle their tree trimmings,grass clippings, leaves, and any organic waste and deposit it to thesoil increase the fertility of the garden. The green space offers asolace away from the commotion and noise of the city and urbansettings, and the cost of maintaining a green space is low ascompared to that of running a parkland.

FinalProject Part: Individual Activity- Community Presentation Part 3

Theposition of the NGO to is to offer transformativedevelopment, as such, the organization has resources to perform theduties. The intention to help the community is a drive to seecommunities prosper, and more particularly with the Riverbend people,help them where their leaders fail. The metabolic syndrome problemwill provide specific individuals to the sick, and those showingsymptoms of any metabolic illnesses. As such, the town willexperience increased labor levels since the working population willshoot up. Such achievements drive the organization to seek as manyresources to achieve the stated mission and vision for the people ofRiverbend. Ethical leadership in our projects remain a pivotal effortto accomplishing the specific objectives. Our recommendations forsuch ethical approaches is that the community members participatewillingly and offer truthful accounts of any information needed. Thecommunity leaders and the heads of the specific organizations have atask of ensuring their departments follow a code of conduct thatmeans transparency and accountability are their top priorities. Bydoing so, the community will utilize the resources available with nohitches if every player function within their ethical specifications.The community members should not attempt to seek the resources of theNGO for self-gain and personal development, since the resourcesavailable cater for all community members. From all members operatingwith official capacity for the NGO, responsibility for personalconduct is mandatory. The organization has written expectations fromall members of the NGO and the selected community members that relateto service on the people. As such, the code of conduct from allmembers is well-laid out to ease the process of accomplishing theobjectives and fulfilling the mission and vision of the NGO. Leadingthe accomplishment of the mission, vision, and values of theorganization must deal with possible conflict of interest in theregion. To guarantee the best interests of the NGO, the serving Boardof Governors shall put the organizational goals ahead of any personalmatters, and ahead of personal desires. The organization developed awritten conflict of interest policy that applies to the servingboards, the directors, and the other employees of the NGO. Thewritten policy dictates operational terms for all people under theorganization regardless if they make decisions that affect theoperations of the NGO or they are in the execution of theorganization’s policies. Additionally, the accomplishment of themission, vision, and values of the organization requires we train thehuman resources present at the organization. Training the staff andsubjecting them to favorable working conditions will drive themission closer home. Our organization has development and growthopportunities for the people working under to accomplish ourobjectives. There is an atmosphere created by the supervisors tofoster the growth of the staff, and expose them to better chances.All staff members will receive fair and equal treatment is respectingtheir rights of association, expression, and conscience.


Cnaan,R. A., &amp Milofsky, C. (2011).&nbspHandbookof community movements and local organizations.New York: Springer.

Hargreaves,A., Boyle, A., &amp Harris, A. (2014).&nbspUpliftingleadership: How organizations, teams, and communities raiseperformance.

Montero,M. (2013).&nbspLeadershipand Organization for Community Prevention and Intervention inVenezuela.Routledge.

Schmitz,P. (2012).&nbspEveryoneleads: Building leadership from the community up.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tropman,J. E., &amp Tropman, J. E. (2012).&nbspSuccessfulcommunity leadership and organization: A skills guide for volunteersand professionals.Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.