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Scholarly Articles

SCHOLARLY ARTICLES 8

ScholarlyArticles

ScholarlyArticles

Therehave been many advances in technology in the past few years,particularly incomputerapplications and their uses. Machines have been digitalized andmodified, built with frameworks that are designed to work like thehuman brain. Infact,some the systems have even superseded the working capacity of thehuman brain.

Criminaljustice can bedefinedas a system made up of lawmakersand enforcersconsistingof lawyers, police,and the courts. This system aims to uphold morality in the society,improve and supportsocial justice and above all to reduce crime with the aim ofeliminating it from society. These goals areachievedthrough investigations, evidence gathering then charges arebroughtforward,and the trial system determines through a just exhaustive (regardingexamining the evidence presented)process determines whether the accused is guilty or not.

Inthis paper, the use of computer applications such as DNA testing,fingerprints, robotic cameras just to mention a few will behighlighted. Theuse of thebiometricsin the fingerprinting technology which has vastly advanced now thatit was tenyears ago.

Cyber-bullyingand cyber- attacks by criminals and terrorists are a major worldwideproblem with the increased use of computers. Cyber intrusions areincreasingly becoming sophisticated and dangerous. This concept iswell known to me.Thesecriminals target both private and public institutions.Sensitive corporate data, trade secrets and information on trade anddevelopment are mainly the objectivesin these attacks. Accordingto Brown Gary (2016),“ Quick success in the cyber techniques, aswell as the increase of facts hoard online, have a more of quickerlook at the theme of online spying. However, the aspect differs inwith how it varies from the conventional ways of intelligence.The rate of admittance and exhilaration in the online surveillanceprocesses can rapidly lead to the leakage of data. Similarly, thedata can beachievedthrough historic schemes of surveillance.”TheFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) formed a task force to dealwith the issue.Quite recently, the United States of America raised concerns andallegations claiming that theRussian government had hacked them.These claimsare yet to be confirmed.

Thecriminals who carry out these cyber- attacks have developed acomputer programmed inthe form of malwareto aid their activities. This malware is knownas ransomware.They send the malware as an email and upon opening it, the entiresystem is crippled. Files, folders and all other material in thewhole systemget encrypted. Users only realize they have beenhackedwhen they realize that they can’t access their data. Computermessages then appear with instructions of how to make ransom paymentsin exchange for the decryption key. With these intrusions,institutions lose billions of shillings in cashand in trying to repair the damages caused. If trade secrets or otherclassified information ishackedinto then world peace will be threatened. According to an article inthe New York Times (2015) “Using the information to cause harm isthe ultimate goal of a cyberoperation,whether espionage or military. Asurveillanceoperation would seek to use the information gathered to do damage tothe national security of the target State. In some cases, thetarget`s national security isweakenedbecause a potential adversary has learned some strategic secret, suchas where troops plan to strike, or a technical secret such as how todefeat a radar system” (para, 2001)

Identitytheft, the scenario of “going dark” is other crimes committedthrough network intrusions. The cyber-attack unit has also developedcomputer applications and programs as counter-measure to thisproblem. This application spells out the signatures of theseintruders and assists in cracking encryption codes preventing ransompayments. Anti-malware and anti-virusapplications areinstalledin computers. These detect harmful malware and eliminate themif any before major harm isdone.Use of biometrics in different sectors, use of robotics andsurveillance techniques are some of the areas of use of computerapplications I’d like to explore.

Useof Biometrics

Thereis an increase in the number of crime rates. Criminals become moreadvanced with the rapid changes in technology, voice alterationtechniques,and other methods are used by criminals to prevent them from beingquicklyarrested.

Biometrics,however,is amethodfor capturing fingerprints, physiological and even anatomicalcharacteristics. The data isthen transferredto a database where it issecurely stored.Thisisa huge advancement assign the past fingerprints were captured usingink, this was not an efficient method. There have also beensignificantimprovementsin the facial recognition technique.

Criminalrecords, court appearing,and all other relevantinformation arestoredalongside fingerprints and other features confined by the biometricsystem. The ‘Integrated Automated Fingerprint IdentificationSystem’ (IAFIS) for example is a system monitored and run byTheFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) isasystem that stores the data collected including voice patterns,facial patterns, irises and dental records.

Inthe caseof any high profile cases that require a thorough investigativeprogress then, the authorities access the information. Fingerprintsand other evidence collected through the investigation arecomparedagainst the information in the systemsuspectsarearrested,and a case isfiled.A judicial process is carried out to find whether the suspect(s) areguilty or innocent.

SurveillanceSystems and Use of Robotics

Pettythefts have increased in our societies, death tolls as a result ofillegal gunfire that could easily beavoidedhave risen,and time to time there are frequent break-ins in banks and otherinstitutions. In the past street cameras that can beevadedeasily were used to monitor public spaces. To curb this growingmenace surveillance systems have been advanced.

Someof the advancements in this sector areburied cable detection system, fence detection units, microwavesensors, control systems and alarm monitoring models, dual technologysensors, infrared sensors, and other accessories. The fence detectionmodels,for example,are used to pinpoint and detect intrusion attempts. The above formsof surveillance areusedfor perimeter security. Other typesof monitoringtechniques are use of drones and robotics.

Roboticsis a form of technology involved with design, constructions,and manufacture of robots. Many law enforcers protecting ourcountries die on duty. It canhappen during drug busts when both the officers and the criminalsopen fire or onthe battlefield where more lethal weapons areused. It isa great loss for our countries. Families lose their loved ones,and providers and the country loseits protectors

Tosolve this new form of technology has been proposed. During drugbusts for example, if police suspect a place to be a laboranareaof dealing drugs robots can besentin as police officers watch from afar.When they confirm their suspicions and know what exactly what theyare walking into, then and only then, police officers invade theplace,and further action is taken“Insteadof transferring in an officer to check out an adverse situation ordiffuse a blast, it’s now easier to send in a robot. There existsalso flying robotic drones that offer officers with a bird`s-eyeviewof a misdemeanor scene without an individual having to go up in theair.” (Saint Joseph University, 2014).

Useof DNA Technology

Deoxyribonucleicacid is the material in the human body that is responsible fortransferring genetic characteristics in different life forms. Rapeand other cases of similar typesaresolvedvia DNA evidence. Various techniques are used to identifyperpetrators in differentcases. Blood samples, semen, hairs found in crime scenes are examplesof what is tested to determine who was present during the offense.

DNAis used to solve crime in various ways. One way is to compare the DNAof a suspect with the one found ata crime scene. The way is to compare DNA samples from a crime sceneagainst a database. The national government developed a databaseknown as Combined DNA Index Systems (CODIS) that maintains recordsunder the federal system. Evidence from a crime scene can be comparedand even belinkedto DNA evidence from other cases. With the use of DNA major crimeshave been solved and prevented.

Inan article inthe New York Times,the importance of the useof DNA is highlighted at the Junk Science FBI (editorial, April 27)positsthat micro-hair evaluators at the group provided a falseevidence in the 97 percent of the suits evaluated so far. The studycould provide an outcome in more than exonerations for wrongs thatthe accused did not commit. It is a more of safe bet when you oneconsiders the faulty ‘microscopic hair’ analysis that was acontributing dynamic in the 22% of the 328 DNA pardons nationwide.

Inthis case, many of these evaluators worked for the government’smisdemeanor labs. Many had received their guidance from the ‘F.B.I’.Thesociety should be praised for accepting to a sovereign survey intohow the issue happened and why it was allowed to go on for so long.It is worth arguing that general publics suffers when the wrongindividuals are accused of offenses and the real culprits remain freeto commit other vicious crimes, which, we also know from the ‘DNAexculpations’, which occurs at a high rate.”

Conclusion

Insummary, various technological advancements have aided in theadministration of justice. The cited articles show the extent ofdamages that could and have beenincurredif these forms of technology areusedin solving cases. The guilty areeventually arrested,while the innocent are exonerated,and these as seen in the beginning are the aims of those who areinvolved in the entireprocess of criminal justice.

References

Autonomousrobots for law enforcement | officer.com.(2016). Officer.com.Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttp://www.officer.com/article/10250075/autonomous-robots-for-law-enforcement

DNAand the f.b.i.(2016). Nytimes.com.Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/05/opinion/dna-and-the-fbi.html?rref=collection%2ftimestopic%2fdna%20evidence&ampaction=click&ampcontentcollection=timestopics&ampregion=stream&ampmodule=stream_unit&ampversion=latest&ampcontentplacement=9&amppgtype=collection

ElectronicFrontierFoundation.(2016). ElectronicFrontierFoundation.Retrieved 12 November 2016, from https://www.eff.org/

FBIquietly forms a secretiveNet-surveillanceunit.(2016). Cnet.Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttps://www.cnet.com/news/fbi-quietly-forms-secretive-net-surveillance-unit/

Ma,h. (2015). Spider Oak,whisper systems, silent circle. Technicalservices quarterly,32(2),228-229. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317131.2015.1000731

Perimetersecurity systems | southwest microwave.(2016). Southwestmicrowave.com.Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttp://www.southwestmicrowave.com/products/?gclid=cj0keqia9zxbbrc29cpdu7yuvrqbeiqahyqz9iyfti5lnnbw776hzp2ntxcr_nk0rqyqk0gu4rbdqooaamq-8p8haq

Technologicalinnovations in criminal justice | but criminal justice degree.(2016). Cjdegreeonline.bu.edu.Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttp://cjdegreeonline.bu.edu/technological-innovations-in-criminal-justice-2/

(2016).Retrieved 12 November 2016, fromhttp://nij.gov/topics/technology/biometrics/pages/welcome.aspx