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Standards and Assessment Development

Standardsand Assessment Development

Standardsand Assessment Development

Standardsand assessments in early learning are very crucial in development ofa child. They provide guidance to teachers and inform them of whatchildren are supposed to know and what they can do at differentstages of their development. Most states in the United States havedeveloped early learning standards that have improved leaning at thisstage (Kagan,2012).

Part1: Unpacking Standards

TheCommon Core States Standard (CCSS) identified in this paper is thatof California, in second grade level. California adopted the CCSS toupgrade the education systems of the state to promote highestachievement of K-12 students. It defines the skills, concepts andknowledge that students are required to obtain in each grade. Itteaches students skills to prepare them for their future college andcareer. It ensures that students throughout the state have access tosame lessons (Schmidt&amp Houang, 2012).

Thecontent area to be studied is mathematics that will involve goingbeyond simple calculations. The big ideas identified in mathematicsinclude promoting knowledge on number sense including calculationsand solving problems. Measurement, geometry and statistics areimportant concepts in mathematics that enhances their understandingon units of measure, objects and shapes. Analysis of data andprobability are crucial in allowing students to collect and organizenumerical data. The three major things that I would want my studentsto remember includes place values and the concepts of multiplication,classification of shapes and measuring quantities with correct unitsand the collection and analysis of data (Schmidt&amp Houang, 2012).

McTigheand Wiggins’ six facets of understanding guides teachers and helpthem to focus on the discussion that they provide to students toenhance their understanding of the various concept they are beingtaught (Wiggins &amp McTighe, 1998). These six facets includeexplain, interpret, application, perspective, empathy,self-knowledge. I will use the six facets of understanding to developessential mathematical questions to my students. These questionsinclude:

Explain:&nbspcanstudents explain how they solve the basic mathematical problems andmake connections in the concepts of multiplication and place value?

Interpret:&nbspCan students interpret the ideas or concepts in data collection,analysis and probability scenarios and situations.

Apply:&nbspCan students use the concepts of measurements and geometry in newways?

Perspective:Can students differentiate between different geometric shapesincluding square, sphere, pyramid, rectangle and circle.

Empathy:Can students project into the concepts that they are being taught inclass.

Self-knowledge:Can students create a new point of view in calculating mathematicalconcepts.

ConceptMap for the Six Questions

What mathematical problems can be solved?

What concepts can be interpreted?

What geometric shapes can students differentiate?

News ways of using measurements and geometry

How do students demonstrate empathy?

How do students create new ways of handling mathematical problems?

Multiplication and place value.

Data collection and probability.

Square, sphere, pyramid, rectangle and circle.

Using different units to measure the same object.

Through acknowledging other students ideas.

By using tools such as sketches to develop a mathematical problem.

Thethree learning objectives of this study include:

  1. To enhance the ability of students to explain and defend their reasoning as they solve problems statistically and probability problems with 70% accuracy

  2. To enhance students’ ability to interpret an experiment situation presented and find ways in which mathematics enlighten the world with 70% accuracy.

  3. To determine students’ ability to apply the mathematical knowledge learnt in class in the real world with 70% accuracy

Theselected unit to be studied in one week includes statistics, dataanalysis and probability. Statistics and data analysis involvescollection of numerical data, analysis and presentation. Probabilityuses simple number patterns such as linear patterns. The big idea ofthis unit includes collection of numerical data, and interpretationof data on bar graphs. Another big idea of the topic is to understandand describe linear patterns. The enduring understanding of this unitinvolves determining the features of data set, organize numericaldata in systematic ways and to identify and describe patterns in thenext set of linear patterns. The students will be asked to solveproblems that include simple number patterns and questions on datarepresentations.

Part2: Develop a Table of Test Specification

Standard: Understand the mathematical process of enhancing critical thinking in solving problems and carrying out experiments

Title of Unit of Study: Application of critical thinking in statistics, data analysis and probability

Grade Level: 2

Content area: Mathematics

Total Points: 10

Type of Items: Multiple Choice

Bloom’s Taxonomy Cognitive Levels

Number/ Percent of Items Per Level

Objectives

Multiple Choice

Level:

Explain

Level:

Interpret

Level:

Apply

Total/Percent

When provided an experiment scenario, explain and defend your reasoning as you solve problems statistical and probability problems with 70% accuracy.

3(30%)

3(30%)

When asked to interpret an experiment situation presented and find ways in which mathematics enlighten the world with 70% accuracy.

4 (40%)

4(40%)

When presented with an experiment situation, apply the mathematical knowledge learnt in class in the real world with 70% accuracy

3(30%)

3(30%)

Total

3(30%)

4(40%)

3(30%)

10(100%)

Part3: Curriculum Map

Standard: Understand the mathematical process of enhancing critical thinking in solving problems and carrying out experiments

  1. To enhance the ability of students to explain and defend their reasoning as they solve problems statistical and probability problems with 70% accuracy

  2. To enhance students’ ability to interpret an experiment situation presented and find ways in which mathematics enlighten the world with 70% accuracy.

  3. To determine students ability to apply the mathematical knowledge learnt in class in the real world with 70% accuracy

Grade Level: 2

Content area: Mathematics

Unit Application of critical thinking in statistics, data analysis and probability

Length of Unit: One Week

Description of Unit of Study: Students will study and put theoretical knowledge into practice through conducting experiments on statistics and collection of numerical data. They will assess the mathematical process of interpreting and representation of data and apply these steps in the classroom’s statistical experiments and in real life as well. The students will be required to measure the lengths of many objects and generate data. Additionally, students will draw a picture graph, identify and draw shapes that consist of particular features such as number of faces. Examples of these shapes include cubes, triangles and pentagons.

Conclusion

TheCommonCore States Standard plays an important role in California byproviding them with skills that are essential in their future careerand in college education. McTighe and Wiggins’ six facets ofunderstanding is effective in providing teachers with guidance thatallows them to focus on what and how they teach students to enhancetheir understanding of the various concepts they are being taught.Therefore, these aspects have enhanced improvement of mathematicsamong students thus improving the standards of performance.

References

Kagan,S. L. (2012). Early Learning and Development Standards. Earlychildhood systems: Transforming early learning,55-70.

Schmidt,W. H., &amp Houang, R. T. (2012). Curricular coherence and thecommon core state standards for mathematics. EducationalResearcher,41(8),294-308.

Wiggins,G., &amp McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design . Alexandria ,VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.