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Support for Children with Developmental Disabilities in Full Inclusion




Supportfor Children with Developmental Disabilities in Full InclusionClassrooms through Self-Management

Koegel,Harrower, and Koegel, (1999) write that according to prevailingliterature, placing children with disability in full-inclusionclassrooms without appropriate support structures has always beenunsuccessful. The article exhibits that data collected over a periodof nine months has shown that if implemented, self-managementenhances the ability of children with disability to a range similarto other children in the classroom. Different studies have beenconducted to elaborate on this with some the investigations focusingon the effects of assessment and intervention during structured andunstructured play periods. The study’s objective was to find out ifthese effects affected the social behaviors of disabled children whenthey interacted with other kids (Koegel, Harrower, &amp Koegel,1999). Other studies revealed the effectiveness of implementingpositive behavior intervention techniques as a way used to providesupport to disabled children that were being included in classroomswith other non-disabled children. The authors discuss howself-management has been used to improve the engagement of childrenwith disability in classrooms.

Self-managementhas been proposed as a practical method that can be used to promotethe independence of children with disabilities in classrooms.Different studies have shown that self-management shifts thebehavioral management from the teachers to the student. This reducesthe need for constant surveillance and support to the children withdisability allowing the teachers to concentrate on academics (Koegel,Harrower, &amp Koegel, 1999). The research evaluates how effectivethe use of temporary support person was in teaching disabledchildren, in full inclusion classrooms the use of self-managementprocedures. The support person involvement was then faded todetermine the independence of the child and their ability toeffectively self-manage themselves. The results of this study showsubstantial improvement in the participation of children with adisability during the use of temporary support structure (Koegel,Harrower, &amp Koegel, 1999). These improvements remained stablewhen the support structures were significantly withdrawn from thechildren. This was proof that children with disability need help torealize they can self-manage themselves and allow teachers toconcentrate on academics.

Effectsof Self-Monitoring On the On-Task Behavior

Theimpacts of self-regulating on the on-task behavior were carried outon children with a disability using a device called MotivAider astheir support structure. This device was set to vibrate and remindthe children to self-record if they were still concentrating on atask or not (Legge, DeBar, &amp Alber-Morgan, 2011). The article byLegge, DeBar, and Alber-Morgan, (2011) explains that multiple resultsshowed a relationship between the children ability to self-monitorand an increase in their on-task behavior. These children remained ontask when the support structure of self-monitoring was removed. Theinvestigation was also carried out to determine the effects ofself-monitoring scholarly productivity to self-regulating on workbehavior. These studies concluded that children with a disability whomonitored their on-task behavior performed better to those whoself-monitored their scholarly productivity.

Thestudy was undertaken to determine this effect involving the use ofthree boys with a disability, who were attending a rural schooldistrict. The study required the students to wear the MotivAiderdevice on their wrist or waist (Legge, DeBar, &amp Alber-Morgan,2011). This device was pre-set to remind these children every twominutes to self-record whether they were still on task or not. Thechildren were provided with self-recording forms where they recordedtheir behavior every time the motivator vibrated. These forms wereused to collect data during the minute free seatwork sessions (Legge,DeBar, &amp Alber-Morgan, 2011). The time lapse was based on reportsprovided by the classroom teachers. The accuracy of the studentsself-recording was measured by use suing the observer`s data sheetagainst the student`s forms. With all these controls in place, thestudy found out that the motivator helps the students to improvetheir on-task concentration significantly. The motivators were thenwithdrawn to test the student`s independence to self-monitor. Theresult of this was that the students managed to self-monitor withoutthe motivator. The study concluded that once students with adisability are programmed to operate in a given manner, they easilymaintain it and manage to be at par with other students.

LessonsLearned Through Implementing a Positive Behavior Support Interventionat Home:

Accordingto the article by Lee, Poston and Poston (2007), the behavior ofdisabled individuals does not only influence their learning at schoolbut also affect their well-being at home as well as theirrelationship with their family members. Behavioral problems caused bythose with disability acts as a significant stressor to theirfamilies or caregivers and negatively impact their emotional andphysical well-being. Because of this, positive behavior support hasbeen given a lot of attention by families as a means of reducingproblem behavior of children with disability (Lee, Poston &ampPoston, 2007). Partnerships between parents and professionals havebeen acknowledged as a catalyst and key to implementing positivebehavior support. It is advised for families to embed PBS with theirdaily routines and activities, therefore, enabling a good contextualfit with the standard family life. Professionals are required tounderstand the different family contexts and circumstances indeveloping a partnership on implementing PBS with the families.

Oneform of PBS that is recommended for use by parents is the use ofself-management which is based on the concept of self-control. Inorder to help families deal with the handicapped member, they havebeen advised to help their disabled in the process ofself-monitoring, instructing, assessing, recording, and reinforcingtheir behavior. Self-management was considered because it empowersthe individuals to control their behavior without relying on other.It also helps integrate what has been learned into various naturalsetting thereby addressing the desire of the disabled for samenesswith others (Lee, Poston &amp Poston, 2007). Self-management is alsoconsidered because it allows for caregivers to concentrate on issuinginstructions rather than concentrating on behavior management. Italso gives the disabled a sense of self-worth which is a core qualityof an excellent life. By using self-management methods, familieswould find it easy to teach and associate their disabled member whilethe handicapped will make it easy for their parents to manage andunderstand their disability.


Koegel,L. K., Harrower, J. K., &amp Koegel, R. L. (1999). Support forchildren with developmental disabilities in full inclusion classroomsthrough self-management.&nbspJournalof Positive Behavior Interventions,1(1), 26-34.&nbsp

Lee,S., Poston, D., &amp Poston, A. (2007). Lessons Learned ThroughImplementing a Positive Behavior Support Intervention at Home: A CaseStudy on Self-Management with a Student with Autism and HisMother.&nbspEducationand Training in Developmental Disabilities,&nbsp42(4),418-427.

Legge,D. B., DeBar, R. M., &amp Alber-Morgan, S. R. (2011). The effects ofself-monitoring with a MotivAider® on the on-task behavior of fifthand sixth graders with autism and other disabilities.&nbspJournalof Behavior Assessment and Intervention in Children, 1(1), 43-52.