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Table of Contents

EFFECTS OF TELEWORKING 1

Abstract 3

Chapter One: Introduction 4

Problem Statement 4

Research Questions 5

Theoretical Framework 5

Chapter Two: Literature Review 6

Chapter Three: Methodology 12

Research Method and Strategy of Inquiry 13

Sample Population 13

Instrumentation 14

Data Collection and Data Analysis 14

Chapter Four: Findings 14

Chapter Five: Conclusion 29

References 34

Abstract

This study addresses the effects of teleworking on federal employees’productivity and job satisfaction in the Chicagoland area. This studyexplores employees’ opinions regarding teleworking. With thepassing of the Teleworking Enhancement Act of 2010, it appears thatthe federal government has adopted this practice of allowingemployees to telework. Review of current literature indicated thatteleworking has been occurring in the private sector however, thereis a lack of research among the public sector. This study uses thetechniques associated with survey research to gather findingsregarding federal teleworking employees in the Chicagoland area. Aquestionnaire was distributed to capture participants’ opinionsrelating to job satisfaction and work efficiency. The researcherdetermined there is a relationship between teleworking, jobsatisfaction, and employee productivity. The results suggest thatthere is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and employeeproductivity. Further research needs to examine the potential effectsof allowing teleworkers to work from home the entire week.

Introduction

Since the passing of the Telework Enhancement Act of 2010, teleworkhas helped the government save money by reducing real estate cost,energy cost, and promoting management efficiencies (United StatesOffice of Personnel Management, 2013). Similarly, the Act hasimproved the quality of an employee’s work-life. Telework can bedefined as “ any arrangement in which an employee regularlyperforms officially assigned duties at home or other work sitegeographically convenient to the residence of the employee” (Shank,2007). Employees now have an opportunity to spend time, which wasonce dedicated to commuting, with their families. The debate underwayis: how productive and satisfied are federal teleworking employees?It is obvious that the federal government wants employees to achievegreater flexibility. Telework can allow employees to spend time onchildcare activities. Many studies have discussed employeesatisfaction among private companies however, federal employeesteleworking experiences have not been researched as much as theirprivate industry counterparts.

Definition of Terms

The following are basic definitions for the key terms in this study.

Job Satisfaction- a pleasurable or positive emotional state resultingfrom the appraisal of one’s job or job experience (Jegadeesan,2007).

Productivity-the contribution made towards an organizational endresult in relation to the amount of resources consumed (McNeese-Smith1997).

Telework- work from anywhere (Vivadelli, 2005)

Telework Enhancement Act of 2010 – bipartisan bill expandedtelecommuting opportunities for federal employees by making 31percent of them eligible to telework, thus allowing them to workoutside of a traditional office setting (Dyer, 2012)

Problem Statement

One of the main problems facing many federal agencies today is howteleworking effects employee commitment (United States Office ofPersonnel Management, 2013). The federal government has been pushingfor many years to increase the number of employees teleworking. Teleworking prevents work stoppages during bad weather, reducesmanagement cost and helps workers balance their work duties withpersonal responsibilities. Employees make arrangements to workoutside the office, regularly at home or at a vicinity nearby (coffeeshop, library or various other locations). The researcher selectedthis research topic because it is interesting that the FederalGovernment wants to achieve greater flexibility in managing itsworkforce through the use of telework. The researcher sought to finda relationship between teleworking and time saved from not commutingto the office. The purpose of the study was to investigate theeffects of teleworking on employee’s productivity and jobsatisfaction within the federal government. The study was limited tofederal agencies within the Chicagoland area, with multipledepartments that allow employees to telework.

The primary aim of this study sought to determine if federalemployees are more productive if allowed to work from home. Thefollowing research questions were addressed.

Central Question

What effect does teleworking have on employee productivity and jobsatisfaction?

Sub Questions

  1. When working from home, how well do teleworkers manage their time?

  2. What ideas do teleworkers have about productivity?

  3. How efficient do teleworkers see themselves based on working from home?

  4. What effect does teleworking have on “quality of life”?

Theoretical Framework

The theory used to guide this study was social identity theory. Itwas developed by Henro Tajifel, and it was used to study the socialpsychological aspects of intergroup behavior. The theory’s premiseis that in many social situations people think of themselves andothers as group members, rather than as unique individuals. Thistheory indicates that, “social identity underpins intergroupbehavior and sees this as qualitatively distinct from interpersonalbehavior” (Van Lange, Kruglanski, &amp Higgins, 2012). As appliedto this study, the theory holds that the independent variableteleworking influences the dependent variable, general jobsatisfaction and productivity.

Limitation of Study

The limitation of this research is that it only focused on onefederal agency: the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Chicagoregional office. The researcher only collected data from theteleworking employees who worked at this agency. This study did notlook at other teleworking agencies in the state of Illinois.

Literature Review

Telecommuting has become a very popular business practice among thepublic and private sectors. “The modern day concept oftelecommuting, known by many names such as e-commuting, e-work,telework, work from home, or working at home is a revival of theputting out system, and is a result of the development of technology,most notably, the Internet” (Screed, 2011). To successfullyparticipate in a teleworking program individuals need specifictechnology requirements. &quotTechnology developments in everyaspect of computing, such as the availability of inexpensive,computers, speedy and reliable communication lines, Internetexpansion, and the ability to move files around and work on filesfrom off-location stations, has made telecommuting easy, accessibleand relatively inexpensive&quot (Harpaz, 2002). Typical technologyrequirements that are needed are the following: communication,equipment and software, network access, and technical support (U.SOffice of Personnel Management, 2016). Since the passing of theTelework Enhancement Act of 2010, telework has helped the governmentsave money by reducing real estate cost, energy cost, and promotesmanagement efficiencies. The literature review covers what has beenpublished in the area of teleworking, advantages and disadvantages,and employee feedback. &nbsp “The Clean Air Act of1990 and its 1996 amendments led&nbspto the establishment of theNational Telework Initiative aimed at reducing carbon dioxide andground-level ozone levels by 25 %”( Scheid, 2011). &nbspSince1972, when Jack Niles coined the term&nbsp“telecommuting,” theworkplace has never been the same (Scheid, 2011).&nbspA studyconducted by Perez, Sanchez, Carnicer, &amp Jimenez, (2010) the casestudy analyzed the environmental impacts of teleworking andintegration of different perspectives. The results showed anaffirmative association between the use of telework and the reductionof commuting and pollution. The study focused on the benefits andbarriers of teleworking. The study discussed some variables that mayinfluence the environmental impacts of teleworking .Perez, et al..,(2004) established that geographical dispersion, advanced services,gender, and logistic supplier strategy are a group of variables thatmay influence the relationship between teleworking adoption andenvironmental impacts and assess the case of a Spanish city.“Telecommuting also offers health benefits: fewer cars on the roadmeans fewer accidents and cleaner air” (Hersch, 2001). The CleanAir Act of 1990, is an important date in the history of teleworkingbecause it mandated that a business with 100 or more employees mustreduce commute time by 25%.

Government agencies have adopted formal and informal teleworkingpractices. “When an organization adopts a telecommuting &nbspwork&nbsppattern, or even when an individual takes it upon &nbspthemselvesto work independently in this manner, it is important to examine thepotential suitability of the &nbspindividual &nbspfor the job, &nbspinorder to improve the chances of success and satisfaction for allparties involved” (Harpaz, 2002). Troup and Rose (2012) examinedhow formal and informal telework arrangements impacted a publicsector employee’s job satisfaction, time spent on childcare, andsatisfaction with the distribution of childcare tasks. Having accessto electronic communication has dramatically increased the surplus ofwork that employees can complete when working from home. Theiranalysis showed that formal and informal telework arrangementsprovide different outcomes to employed women and men with children,particularly in the areas of job satisfaction and satisfaction withthe distribution of childcare tasks.&nbspThe study addressesoutcomes related to formal and informal telework&nbsppractices in asample of working parents employed in the public&nbspsector, wheretelework has been provided as part of a well-established&nbspworkpolicy since 2002 (Troup &amp Rose, 2012). The study finds that menand women were equally likely to telework, although men were morelikely (10%) than women (5%) to have a formal arrangement in place.The study showed how employed parents distribute and shareresponsibility is a great indicator to their work family balance.Troup and Rose (2012) expound on the idea that job satisfaction informal arrangements were more favorable to women’s job satisfactionthan men’s. This can also provide an increase in job satisfactionand therefore may result in a decrease in employee absences.Teleworking within the Federal Government has had manyadvantages. Allowing staff to telecommute can also boost employeeattitudes. Harpaz (2002) found that key advantages to individuals areincreased autonomy and flexibility. The benefit of telecommuting,both actual and perceived, are well-documented: increased employeeproductivity, increase quality contact with customers, betterwork-life balance for employees, reduction in corporate real estateexpenses, and reduction in traffic congestion and air pollution”(Ye, 2012). Another key advantage discussed by Morgan (2004) usessmoothing out the supply curve. Furthermore, produces and deliversservices no longer respect the 9-5 culture.

A study conducted by Nastase and Ionescu (2011) recognized that theimplementation of teleworking in audit organizations have a mainreason, cutting the costs and offering employees a more flexible workenvironment. Furthermore, Nastase and Ionescu (2011) conducted asurvey of six Romanian audit organizations focusing mainly on auditmanagers and specialist with telework experience. The studyparticipants were asked to complete a questionnaire that focused onthe advantages and disadvantages associated with telework audit teamsand how audit organizations have managed the telework environmentmore effectively, while confronting specific issues. Teleworking isconnected to providing flexibility and the ability to finish tasks ina timely manner. Similarly Harpaz (2002) states an increase inproductivity among e-workers versus their site-based colleagues. Heattributes this to the time and effort lost in solving interpersonalproblems because of workers sharing the same office. Nastase andIonescu (2012) results indicated that for the audit organizationproviding equipment for home offices or telework centers is lesscostly than expanding offices. Nevertheless, for teleworkingauditors, a flexible work location improves work/life balance, reduction in commuting time, and leads to higher productivity withlower turnover rates (Nastase &amp Ionescu, 2011). In addition, thecreation of more attractive working conditions increases workmotivation, which in turn increases the level of job satisfaction(Harpaz, 2002).&nbsp

Job satisfaction is one of the most commonly reported outcomes oftelework (Fonner, 2010). Job satisfaction can be defined as a“reintegration of effect produced by individual’s perception offulfillment of his needs in relation to his work and situationssurrounding it” (Saiydain, 2003). Teleworkers frequently reporthigher levels of job satisfaction than do their coworkers who do nottelework (Day &amp Burbach, 2011). According to the responses fromsatisfied employees, Fonner (2010), revealed telework is associatedwith higher job satisfaction because it alleviates work-lifeconflict, connected to job satisfaction through the influences ofinformation exchange, stress from interruptions, and work-lifeconflict, and teleworkers are more satisfied with their jobs becausethey are less exposed to office politics. A study conducted byHaines, St-Onge, and Archambault (2002) sample of atotal of 153 participants from a federal government agency found,that it appears the support received from the family domain improvesthe teleworking experience Wise and Bond (2003) explained thatbenefits to staff should be a better work-balance, reduce stress andimprove work satisfaction. “Satisfaction with work/family balanceis associated with job satisfaction in federal employees” (Day &ampBurbach, 2011). Furthermore, when implementinghome-based telecommuting as a work –life benefit there is a degreeof freedom in the individuals working condition (Hornung, 2010).

Teleworking has been sown to increase productivityamong employees .Butler, Aasheim, &amp Williams (2007) conducted astudy to examine the effects of teleworking on productivity byanalyzing longitudinal data for call center representatives atKentucky American Water Company. The research sought to determinesolid evidence of demonstrable productivity gain. “Productivity isan important concern for organizations considering the adoption oftelecommuting options for their employees” (Butler, Aasheim, &ampWilliams, 2007). The study found that there is a positive effect onabsenteeism and of telecommuters on the productivity of otheremployees. “Because less time is wasted commuting to and from work,telework employees can concentrate on the work at hand and producemore in less time”( Day &amp Burbach, 2011). One of the keystudies by Butler, Aasheim, &amp Williams(2007) found that theirresearch results are based upon a measure of actual workerproductivity rather than self- reported data.

Attitudes and perceptions vary greatly among teleworkers. A &nbspstudyconducted by Scholefield and Peel (2009) &nbspexamined 123 managersin marketing firms in New Zealand and followed up with eight in depthinterviews. The study investigated managers’ attitudes andperceptions of teleworking. Scholefield and Peel (2009) note thateven with predictions, telework could be a major model in theworkforce. However, with managerial resistance it may be less thananticipated. A key finding in the study explained there is a solidmajority of respondents that agree telework can improve employeesatisfaction and that a telework arrangement could improve thecompany’s preferred employer status (Scholefield and Peel, 2009).The study also found that the majority of managers agree thatteleworking will possibly result in reduced performance because ofthe physical isolation. Tremblay (2002) conducted research to explorethe type of tasks carried out by workers. The case studies found thatsupervisors think that characteristics of both the worker and thetask determine whether or not a situation is suitable for telework(Tremblay, 2002) Scolefield and Peel (2009) suggested that “Althoughthey [managers] may state that they are supportive of teleworking,busy managers are unlikely to make the necessary efforts to implementsuch an arrangement for their staff when, in reality, they have mixedfeelings about the concept.” Furthermore, a separate studyconducted by Peters, Dulk, &amp Ruijter (2010), focused on debateson the changing views of employee relations and on the adoption oftelework as a new work practice through the analysis of linemanagers’ general telework-attitudes formation processes. Moreover,the study highlighted the possible outcomes in concrete requestsituations, mirroring managers’ views of the employee relationship.Peters, et al.., (2010) notes through their mixed method study thosemanagers with conservative attitudes view home-based telework as abenefit for select employees. &nbspThis in turn keeps telework frombecoming a strategic tool for companies that can improve organizationeffectiveness and employee commitment long-term. The results showthat human resources management systems need to be internallyconsistent and based on a view of the employee’s relationship whichstresses commitment and trust as the guiding principle, rather thancontrol and coordination (Peter, et al.., 2010).

Methodology

Research Method and Strategy of Inquiry

This quantitative study used a non-experimental design. The surveystrategy of inquiry is the best approach when attempting to gatherfederal employees’ opinions. This strategy of inquiry allowed theresearcher to gather federal employees’ attitudes and beliefstowards teleworking. Data was collected through questionnaires givento federal employees who participate in teleworking within theChicagoland area. As it relates to research methodology, there areseveral advantages of using quantitative research which includepracticality, large amounts of information can be collected from alarge number of people in a short period of time and in a relativelycost effective way, and data can be easily compared. However, thedisadvantages of this type of research are biased surveyinstrumentation, lack of validity, or People may read differentlyinto each question and therefore reply based on their owninterpretation of the question which can prove to be an issue.

Sampling Population

The participants for this study were federal government employees whoare teleworking within the Chicagoland area. The sampling method usedwas purposive sampling as the researcher was not be able to controlthe setting, participants, events and process. The target populationwas both management and non-management employees. These individualswere been chosen to determine their level of satisfaction within thefederal teleworking community.

Instrumentation

A questionnaire was used to collect information on how federalteleworking employees view teleworking, job satisfaction and jobproductivity. Participants were asked how they feel about somegeneral statements, personal concerns and work efficiency. A fivepoint Likert Scale was used to capture participants’ responses.Participants were asked how working from home affected their timingin work. Similarly, participants were asked, how has working fromhome impacted their ability to serve the customer.

Data Collection and Data Analysis

The questionnaire for this study was cross-sectional, and wascollected in its entirety in one day. Participants were given aconsent form and asked to sign the form before being allowed toparticipate in the study. Participants sat in a conference room tocomplete the questionnaire using a black pen that was provided tothem. The researcher distributed the questionnaire comprised of 15questions to a purposeful sample of teleworkers at the Center forMedicaid and Medicare Chicago office. The researcher was grantedlimited access to attend an all staff meeting. The researcher soughtto identify how teleworkers felt about their productivity and jobsatisfaction using a quantitative research design. The data wasanalyzed using descriptive analysis. The sole criteria for this studymandated that all participants be teleworking employees.

Data Findings-Results

Time management of teleworkers when working from home

In an effort to capture teleworkers’ job productivity when workingfrom home, 30 State of Illinois federal teleworkers were asked tocomplete a questionnaire on the research topic. The past researcheswere mainly concerned with the investigation of variations among theworkers under convectional and teleworking settings as well as thehigh against the low intensity teleworking (Day,2011). It has been observed that many employees work from boththe office and homes. Hence it is necessary to analyze thedifferences in individual’s office versus home hours of work. Thequestionnaire revealed that 23 of the study participants were femaleand seven were male. In addition to capturing the teleworkers gender,study participants were asked to disclose their age, race, highestlevel of education attained, and household income. Tables 1 through 4illustrate these findings by gender. These demographic variables wereused to further investigate variations in participants’ responses.

Table 1: Sample population profile by Age

Gender

Number

%

Female

23

77%

Male

7

23%

Total

30

100%

Table 1 presents the percentage of the purposive sample was comprisedof 77percent of women and 23 percent were men.

Table 2: Sample population profile by Age

Age

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

25-30

1

4.35%

0

0.00%

1

3.33%

31-36

3

13.04%

1

14.29%

4

13.33%

37-42

7

30.43%

2

28.57%

9

30.00%

43-48

8

34.78%

2

28.57%

10

33.33%

49-54

4

17.39%

1

14.29%

5

16.67%

N/A

0

0.00%

1

14.29%

1

3.33%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Table 2 summarizes these demographics based on gender, whereby 4.35%of female participants were between the ages of 25 to 30. Thefindings of this study indicate that 13.04% of women participants and14.29% of male participants preferred to work from home than in theoffice. Additionally, there was a 30.43% improvement in laborproductivity for those teleworkers working from home compared tothose individuals working in the offices. Moreover, 34.78% of femaleparticipants and 28.57% of male participants reported preferringworking in the offices that offered fewer opportunities fordistractions.

There was an approximately 17.39% of improvement among the femaleparticipants under teleworking conditions than for those operating ona regular schedule and 14.29% of development among male participantsworking in the offices under the teleworking program. The teleworkingpopulation of the federal government formulates ages into fivecategories 6 percent for those 29 and under. It expresses 19% forthose 30 to 39 years old, 29% for those 40 to 49 years old, 34% forthose 50 to 59 years old, and 12% for those 60 and older (Status ofTelework in the Federal Government, 2013). The sample is close tobeing representative of the federal teleworking population in age.

Table 3: Demographic data based on Race

Race

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

Asian or Pacific Islander

1

4.35%

0

0.00%

1

3.33%

Black/ African American

16

69.57%

2

28.57%

18

60.00%

Hispanic/ Latino

2

8.70%

1

14.29%

3

10.00%

White/ Caucasian

4

17.39%

3

42.86%

7

23.33%

N/A

0

0.00%

1

14.29%

1

3.33%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Table 3 reflects the responses to the questionnaire, as it pertainsto race. Of the participants, 4.35% of the female defined themselvesas Asian or Pacific Islander. Additionally, 69.57% of female and28.57% of males selected Black/African American. Overall, 8.70% ofwomen study participants and 14.29% of men were Hispanic/Latino. Thestudy also shows that 17.39% of female participants and 42.86% ofmale participants were White/Caucasian. According to the best placeto work in the federal government, the possibility of teleworkingfrom home resulted in a significant increase of the teleworking staffwith about 0.6% among Native American, 6.5% among the Asians, 29.4%black, 3.5% Hispanic-Latino, 1.2% Multi-racial and 58.6% white. About56% of the teleworkers reported that it was entirely possible tomanage their time while working at home efficiently. About 30% of theparticipants stated that working from home was quite disruptive andthere was a high likelihood of mismanaging time. About 15% of theparticipants seemed uncertain whether working in the office or athome had any impact on the individual time management.

Table 4: Demographic data based on household Income

Household Income

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

$25,000 to $34,999

&nbsp0

0.00%

1

14.29%

1

3.33%

$35,000 to $49,999

2

8.70%

&nbsp0

0.00%

2

6.67%

$50,000 to $74,999

4

17.39%

&nbsp0

0.00%

4

13.33%

$75,000 to $99,999

2

8.70%

&nbsp0

0.00%

2

6.67%

$100,000 to $149,999

6

26.09%

4

57.14%

10

33.33%

$150,000 or more

8

34.78%

1

14.29%

9

30.00%

N/A

1

4.35%

1

14.29%

2

6.67%

Total

23

&nbsp

7

&nbsp

30

100.00%

The majority of the participants earn 100,000 or more. The findingsof the study indicate 14.29% of male participants had a householdincome between $25,000 and $34,999. Additionally, 8.70% of femaleparticipants had a household income between $35,000 and $49,999.Also, 17.39% of women participants had a household income between$50,000 and $74,999. Furthermore, 8.70% of female participants had ahousehold income between $75,000 and $99,999. This study revealed ofthe sample population 26.09% of women, and 57.14% of males had a homeincome of $1000, 000 to $149,999. Moreover, 34.78% of women and14.29% of men have a household income of $150,000 or more. Twoparticipants did not respond to this question. Household Income ofCenter for Medicaid and Medicare employees were not disclosed ontheir website.

Tables 5 through 16 illustrate the responses participants gave inregards to their perception of teleworking. The first two questionspresented highlight teleworkers managing their time. Teleworkersperceptions on work productivity and their level of efficiency werealso addressed. The final group of issues focused on quality of lifewhile teleworking. The researcher cross-tabulated the perceptions ofteleworking based on gender. According to a Gallup study, people whohave indicated in polls that they have telecommuted in the past hasdramatically increased, with most professional workers, managers, andexecutives accounting for the majority of that growth (Palmer, 2015).Similarly, The Gallup Poll found that 55% of college graduates haveteleworked, and 44% of white-collar workers. The first item that isanalyzed is managing time.

Managing time

The paradigm shift of the office is apparently seen in manyprofessional offices, with globalization and advances in technologyleading the changes in offices worldwide. A decline in thetraditional office setting has been created because of employeesincrease in teleworking. Many teleworkers before did so to get a headstart on work or to catch up if a project was not finished at theoffice however, that has changed, and now many view it as anopportunity to skip the post altogether to either avoid a longcommute or avoid distractions. Over 46% of teleworkers in 2015participated in telework activities during regular business hours.When asked if teleworking has made participants feel like they areunable to finish their work on time the majority either disagreed orstrongly disagreed.

Table 6: Time management based on gender

Response

Female

%

Male

%

total

%

Strongly Agree

8

34.78%

1

14.29%

9

30.00%

Agree

11

47.83%

3

42.86%

14

46.67%

Neutral

2

8.70%

3

42.86%

5

16.67%

Disagree

2

8.70%

0

0.00%

2

6.67%

Strongly Disagree

0

0.00%

0

0.00%

0

0.00%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Participants were asked if teleworking has enhanced the way theymanage their time. The study revealed in Table 6 that 30% of theparticipants while only 6.67% disagreed with the statement thatteleworking enhanced the way they manage their time. Employers haverealized that telecommuting boosts productivity and enhancesattendance. Not only do those who telework find it beneficial to theproductivity of an office, but also in a similar study, 58% ofrespondents agreed that they are just as productive as those who workat the physical office. Attitudes about working from home havechanged dramatically what was once viewed as absenteeism is now seenas work flexibility.

Telework perception about work productivity

According to the Association for Psychological Science, teleworkinghas grown dramatically from 100,000 in 1997 to 3.3 million in 2014.According to a recent Gallup Poll, teleworking (or telecommuting) hasclimbed 37% from 30% in 2008. It suggests that employers andemployees alike are more willing and able to allow teleworking.Although teleworking has slowed in the recent times, its significanceand might provide more opportunities, to the employers for boostingthe morale of workers who do not like commuting (Jones, 2015). Troup&amp Rose (2012) found that telecommuting increases productivity andmore importantly that this increase is sustainable over time.Similarly, the results of this study indicated that 90% ofparticipants in the study feel teleworking had increased theirproductivity.

Table 7: Teleworking and productivity

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

15

50%

Agree

12

40%

Neutral

2

7%

Disagree

1

3%

Strongly Disagree

0

0%

Total

30

100%

Participants were asked if their relationship with their supervisorhas improved. The study found, 36.66% of respondents strongly agreedor agreed with the statement and 56.66% felt neutral. Traditionalmethods of directing are not compatible with telecommuting. TheAmerican Planning Association journal frequently showed interests inthe employers’ abilities to telework. It published that theemployers cannot keep tabs on their workers to know about theirworking progress. Many managers fear giving freedom and trust toemployees to finish various tasks and make sound decisions withoutinvolving the directors. The managers should shift from monitoringemployees to evaluating their productivity. There is also the need toimplement the right policies and ensure accurate timing andsupervision.

Table 8: Supervisor-Employee relationship

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

4

13.33%

Agree

7

23.33%

Neutral

17

56.66%

Disagree

2

6.66%

Strongly Disagree

0

0%

Total

30

100%

Participants were asked if working from home has favorably impactedtheir ability to serve customers 26.67 percent of respondentsstrongly agreed. A survey of IBM teleworkers revealed that 87% agreedthat their individual output and effectiveness on the work had risedsubstantially (Troup &amp Rose, 2012). A Stanford study has foundthat teleworking can increase productivity. The study encompassedover 16,000 work-from-home (WFH) employees and revealed a 13% growthin productivity with 50% fewer turnover rates. Since the primaryinterest of governmental offices is to reduce costs to taxpayers,telecommuting would be an option to reduce waste. The study mentionedabove stated an estimated $2,000 savings, per employee who worked athome. The researcher found that 40 percent of respondents agreed withteleworking favorably impacting their ability to serve customers.Approximately 26.67 percent felt neutral about the statement and,6.67 percent disagreed with the declaration. The next item that isanalyzed is efficiency.

Table 9: Working from home has favorably impacted my abilityto serve the customer

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

8

26.67%

Agree

12

40.00%

Neutral

8

26.67%

Disagree

2

6.67%

Strongly Disagree

0

0%

Total

30

100%

Table 10: Cross tabulation of responses that felt Working from homehas favorably impacted the ability to serve the customer bygender

Response

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

Strongly Agree

6

26.09%

2

28.57%

8

26.67%

Agree

10

43.48%

2

28.57%

12

40.00%

Neutral

6

26.09%

2

28.57%

8

26.67%

Disagree

1

4.35%

1

14.29%

2

6.67%

Strongly Disagree

&nbsp

0.00%

&nbsp0

0.00%

0

0.00%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Efficiency

When the participants were asked if they felt uncomfortable aboutgetting their work done on time, 77% strongly disagreed, and 13%agreed. Telecommuting improves working morale because the staffresponds positively to the show of trust and confidence by anemployer through the adoption of the distinct work style thatcharacterizes teleworking (Palmer, 2015). Flex Jobs survey of 2600employees determined how comfortable teleworkers are conducting theirjob task away from their job site. The study revealed that 76% ofrespondents avoid the office to get important work done and thattheir homes were the most conducive work environment for “importantwork-related projects.” This study also shows that 71% of theworkers believed teleworking minimizes office politics and 65% saythey feel more comfortable at home. There was an overall improvementin the work efficiency of about 67% after the introduction ofteleworking as compared to the effectiveness of the regular workprogram. Teleworking increased the individual flexibility and hencecomfort at work is the reason behind the increase in efficiency.

According to Glass (2013), theTelework Enhancement Act of 2010 identified the united states GeneralService Administration (GSA) as an efficient guidance institution tothe other federal agencies in the implementation of their teleworkprograms. The implementation process of the various institution’steleworking programs is often faced by many challenges. It istherefrore important to identify the factors of success andchallenges found in the implementation of telework by GSA.

Table 11: I feel uncomfortable about getting my workdone on time

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

0

0%

Agree

2

7%

Neutral

1

3%

Disagree

4

13%

Strongly Disagree

23

77%

Total

30

100%

Tables 12 and 13 summarize the results of this study, as it relatesto the perception of completing tasks on time. Work becomes efficientif there are no interruptions in form of office politics and schmooze(Palmer, 2015).The findings of this study indicate that 53.33percent felt that teleworking has helped them spend more time onobjectives and tasks. Additionally, 33.33 percent of respondentsagreed with the statement. Furthermore, 6.67 percent of respondentswere neutral, and 3.33 percent of respondents disagreed with 3.33percent strongly disagreeing.

Table 12: Teleworking has helped in spending more time on objectivesand tasks

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

16

53.33%

Agree

10

33.33%

Neutral

2

6.67%

Disagree

1

3.33%

Strongly Disagree

1

3.33%

Total

30

100%

Table 13: Cross tabulation of responses that Teleworking has helpedin spending more time on objectives and tasks by gender

Response

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

Strongly Agree

14

60.87%

2

28.57%

16

53.33%

Agree

8

34.78%

2

28.57%

10

33.33%

Neutral

&nbsp0

0.00%

2

28.57%

2

6.67%

Disagree

&nbsp0

0.00%

1

14.29%

1

3.33%

Strongly Disagree

1

4.35%

&nbsp0

0.00%

1

3.33%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Table 14 and 15 illustrates participants responses to increasedquality of work based on gender. Participants were asked if theirquality of life has improved since teleworking. According to HispanicTimes Magazine, telecommuting has been shown to improve health andreduce stress to workers leading to greater degrees of workefficiency. Based on the questionnaire responses, 60% stronglyagreed and 36.67% agreed. Flexibility allows an employee to balancework and family time. For example, when working from home, a parentcould take a break to attend an event at school.

Table 14: Teleworking has increased the quality of work

Response

N

%

Strongly Agree

12

40%

Agree

9

30%

Neutral

6

20%

Disagree

3

10%

Strongly Disagree

0

0%

Total

30

100%

Quality of life

Table 15: Cross tabulation of responses that felt Teleworking hasincreased the quality of work by gender

Response

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

Strongly Agree

10

43.48%

2

28.57%

12

40.00%

Agree

7

30.43%

2

28.57%

9

30.00%

Neutral

5

21.74%

1

14.29%

6

20.00%

Disagree

1

4.35%

2

28.57%

3

10.00%

Strongly Disagree

0&nbsp

0.00%

&nbsp0

0.00%

0

0.00%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

Table 16 illustrates participants responses to increased quality oflife as a result of teleworking. According to Ye(2012) policy makers and employers have expressed muchinterest in how alternative work arrangements might both improvework–life balance for working mothers and enhance their quality oflife. Furthermore, work–life balance has become an important issuein the modern, post-industrial societies because of its link toconcerns about the quality of life (vander, van Baalen &amp van Heck, 2014). The responses arecategorized based on gender, the data revealed that both men andwomen (96.66% in both groups) agreed with an increase of quality oflife since the introduction of teleworking.

Table 16: Cross tabulation of responses that quality of life hasimproved due to Teleworking

Response

Female

%

Male

%

Total

%

Strongly Agree

16

69.57%

2

28.57%

18

60.00%

Agree

7

30.43%

4

57.14%

11

36.67%

Neutral

&nbsp0

0.00%

0

0.00%

0

0.00%

Disagree

&nbsp0

&nbsp0.00%

1

14.29%

1

3.33%

Strongly Disagree

&nbsp0

&nbsp0.00%

&nbsp0

0.00%

0

0.00%

Total

23

100.00%

7

100.00%

30

100.00%

The findings from this study were in alignment with most of thecurrent literature. The vast majority of the participants indicatedthat, while teleworking, they were able to finish their tasks ontime. A majority of those participants reported an improvement in thequality of life since the introduction of the telework programs inworkplaces. The findings from the study indicate a growing shift inthe opinions of teleworkers’ towards their relationship with thesupervisors. This study revealed the sample populations’ attitudetoward teleworking satisfaction, efficiency, quality of life,managing time and work productivity which has not been addressedwithin the federal teleworking community. These findings couldassist in revealing how teleworking has improved the quality of lifethrough increased time for personal growth and more time for leisure.

There are many unanswered queries concerning the differences betweenworking at home and the office. Van der, van Baalen &amp van Heck(2014), stated that the working environment greatly influenced thequality of life. They base their arguments on research and suchtheories as cognitive overload and environmental comfort to explainhow teleworking has resulted in improved quality of life among thestaff. Van der, van Baalen &amp van Heck conducted a quasi-fieldstudy about the relationship between telework and productivity. Theexperiment concluded that disruption reduction gains positivelyimpacted on the staffs’ knowledge while the satisfaction andcontrol benefits had no effect on the quality improvement among thestaff.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study sought to explore the effects ofteleworking on federal employees’ productivity and jobsatisfaction. The researcher determined that survey research was apractical approach to gaining the insight into participants’opinions of teleworking. Also, it was determined that a mixed methodapproach might be more efficient. A focus group following aquestionnaire would have captured more insightful opinions than whatwas captured through only survey responses. It would have allowed theresearcher to achieve the richer dialogue.

When working from home, teleworkers find it easier to control theirtime than when working in the offices (Breaugh &amp Farabee, 2012).The findings of this study prove that teleworking has improvedteleworkers time management, among the workers because they find iteasier to allocate more time for the sensitive activities.

The teleworkers have many ideas about productivity because theyhave more time allocated for self-reflection and are not limited tothe office working environment. Teleworking enhances the workers toengage in more productive activities in their free time which improvetheir productivity (Biron &amp Veldhoven, 2016). More freedom isgranted to the workers ensuring that they can utilize their energiesand extra time in constructive activities that boost theirproductivity.

Teleworkers are known to be efficient in their work than the regularstaff. Working at home enhances the management of time due to theflexibility of the workers (Chen &amp McDonald, 2014). When workingat the offices, the staff are restricted in the number of activitiesthey can do through supervision from their seniors. However, whileworking at home, the teleworkers can plan their daily activities in away that best fits their schedule. Therefore the teleworkers willalways have the impression of having more efficiency in work than theordinary workers (Kim, Choo &amp Mokhtarian, 2015).

According to Breaugh &amp Farabee (2012), teleworking has a profoundeffect on the quality of life among the workers. Teleworkers enjoymore freedom and flexibility than the regular staff. The teleworkerscan conduct their activities more efficiently because they have morecontrol of their time and understand how to allocate enough time forevery activity adequately.

The researcher recognizes the same is not representative of allteleworkers. The sample was limited to teleworkers at the Centers forMedicare and Medicare Chicago regional office. A sample from otherfederal agencies may have yielded different results. The day thequestionnaire was administered could have impacted the finding. Theresearcher collected data on a Monday morning at 9:00 am.Theoutcome might have been different if the researcher collected datathroughout the day and over a longer period. A larger sample size ofteleworkers may have also changed study findings. Many potentialparticipants refused to partake in the study due to the concern thatthe agency would see the information. Further research should alsofocus on full-time federal teleworking employees. With the Centersfor Medicaid and Medicare moving towards allowing employees totelework the entire week, more employees will be participating in theprogram. Future researchers may have more data to create a soundevaluation as to policy changes to improve teleworking practices.

EMPLOYEEJOB SURVEY

Please complete the enclosed questionnaire. Your response and anycomments will be treated with utmost confidentiality. After theresults are tabulated and compiled, a report of the aggregate datawill be produced.

What is your gender?

  • Male

  • Female

What is the highest degree or level of education you have completed?

  • 12th grade or less (no diploma)

  • High School diploma

  • Associates or technical degree

  • Bachelor’s degree

  • Graduate degree/professional

What category best describes your annual household income?

  • Less than $24,999

  • $25,000 to $49,000

  • $50,000 to $99,999

  • $100,000 or more

What is your race?

  • American Indian or Alaskan native

  • Asian or Pacific Islander

  • Black/African American

  • Hispanic/Latino

  • White/Caucasian

  • Other ( please specify) _

What which category is your age?

  • 25-34 years

  • 35-44 years

  • 45-64 years

  • 65-74 years

  • 75 years or older

Do you hold a management or non-management position?

  • Management

  • Non-management

How many days a week do you work from home?

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 7

Statement

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Has the idea of working at home made you feel like you may not be able to finish your work on time?

Do you agree that Telecommuting has helped you spend more time on your objectives and tasks?

Personal Concerns

Does the idea of working from home make you feel uneasy or uncomfortable about getting your work finished on time?

Are you concerned about how, or if, the relationship might change between you and your supervisor after you begin teleworking?

Statement

Very Positively

Positively

Neutral

Negatively

Very Negatively

Work Efficiency

How has working from home impacted your ability to serve the customer?

How has teleworking impacted the quality of your work?

How has teleworking affected your productivity/personal effectiveness?

How has teleworking changed the way you manage your time

Statement

Excellent

Good

Average

Below Average

Poor

Please choose the answer that best describes this statement, &quotMy Quality of Life has improved since I started Telecommuting.&quot

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