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VOTING LAWS IN THE USA AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

VOTING LAWS IN THE USA 7

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Voting Laws in the USA

List of References

18 U.S. Code Chapter 29 – Elections and politicalactivities. (2014). Retrieved November 16, 2016, fromhttps://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/part-I/chapter-29

Brennan, J. (2011). Theethics of voting. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.

Election Reform Act of 1966: Hearings beforethe Subcommittee on Elections of the Committee on HouseAdministration, House of Representatives89. Congress,a 2.session on H.R. 15317 and related bills, to revise the federalelections laws, and for other purposesJuly 21, August 17, 22, 25, 1966.(2016). Washington: US Gov.Print.Off.

Jamison, D. D., &amp Gore, G. (2012). SuperPACS (Political Action Committees): The new force in federalelections. New York, NY: Nova Science.

Lehto, P. R. (2013, June 12). Election Laws,Federal Elections. Encyclopedia of U.S.Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior,23-56. doi:10.4135/9781412963886.n101

Smith, M. A., Anderson, K., &amp Rackaway, C. (2015). State VotingLaws in America. doi:10.1057/9781137483584

The Americans with Disabilities Act and OtherFederal Laws Protecting the Rights of Voters with Disabilities.(2015, August 15). Retrieved November 16, 2016, fromhttps://www.ada.gov/ada_voting/ada_voting_ta.htm

The National Voter Registration Act Of 1993(NVRA). (2012, July 12). Retrieved November 16, 2016, fromhttps://www.justice.gov/crt/national-voter-registration-act-1993-nvra

Voting and Election Laws. (2016,October/November). Retrieved November 16, 2016, fromhttps://www.usa.gov/voting-laws

Wang, T., &amp Serebrov, J. (2013). Job Serebrovand Tova Wang, Voting Fraud and Voter Intimidation, [Draft] Report tothe U. S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) on PreliminaryResearch and Recommendations (2006). ElectionLaw Journal, 6(3),330-351. doi:10.1089/elj.2007.6314

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Smith, M. A., Anderson, K., &amp Rackaway, C.(2015). State Voting Laws in America.doi:10.1057/9781137483584

More than two-thirdsof the US states demand one to show some form of identification cardbefore being allowed to vote. More than half of the states alsorequire an IDwith a photo and may include a driver’s license or state ID cards,Passports, andmilitary IDs. If one has no ID, some states allow voting,but there is a needfor affirmation of who you are. Therefore,one fills a form of identification for further follow up. Moreover,you may be required to return to the station with the ID,or your vote will not be counted.First-timers in voting have to go with the ID for recognition. Also,there are voter accessibility laws like Help America Vote Act (HAVA)and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), among others whichcall for all people including senior citizens and individualswith disabilities to vote. They have a right to independently andprivately vote, and access a polling space and machines easilyand swiftly. Again, there is an Election Assistance Commission (EAC)that has a mandate of ensuring language accessibility.

People with language barriers arehelped through a guide that has more than11 different languages. Someone also has a right to contact a localor state election office for help. Rockaway,Anderson and Smith’s account is peculiar because it gives apractical analysis of election laws of themodern times as they find answers in a historical perspectiveparticularly the battles about the practice of elections in theUnited States of America. By considering the contemporary debatingcontext, the writers demarcate what seem to be moldyexplanations of old disputes of ideologies and currentdisputes over early voting and IDs.

The article is provocative and innovative at thesame time. Voting laws of the states have been a mystery to somepeople but likeSmith, Anderson and Rockawayexplain it, one can easily comprehend and exercise their rights tovote. The authors have a wealth of electoral knowledge,and they take us deep into the 21st century’s moves to expand andrestrict the electorate. The state level is criticalin elections, andthe issues may reflect on the nationalscale if not well handled. This articlerightly marries the topic of voting laws in the US.

Voting and Election Laws.(2016, October/November). Retrieved November 16, 2016, fromhttps://www.usa.gov/voting-laws

The US law of voting isreferred to the ConstitutionalArticle 1 that mandated states to oversee the federal elections.Subsequently, various amendments have been effected to ensureinclusivity ofall Americans in elections. The African Americans weregiven a right to vote onthe Constitution’s 15th Amendment. The 1956 Act ofthe Right to Vote lifted the ban on manyblacks from the South to vote. In 1920, the 19th ConstitutionalAmendment gave the women a right to vote in the USA. The 24thAmendment of 1964 removed poll taxes that prevented blacks fromparticipating in the federalelections.

In 1971, the 26th amendment wasratified, and it reduced the voting age to18 in all the elections. There are the federal rights of voting lawsthat include the Civil Rights Act that inhibits discrimination invoting and was amendedlater in 1957, 1960, and during1964. Others include the right to vote Actof 1965, Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of1984, Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) of1986, National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993, Help AmericaVote Act (HAVA) of 2002, Military and Overseas Voting Empowerment(MOVE) Act of 2009 among others. TheUS government updates this website and thatis why it has a “.gov” uniform resource locator (URL).

The government is the credible source of votinglaws because it keeps records of all the constitutional amendmentssince the inception of this great nation up to the most recentchanges. Moreover, I have prior knowledge of the voting laws and Isee that the information from this website marries what I know atleast from news centers like CNN and BBC. The website vividlyexplains the serialamendments to the American constitution with regards to the votinglaws, a matter that is of interest to this research. Additionally, ithas some explanations from the proponents of those laws, some of whomwere government officials like senators, governors and evenpresidents. Therefore, it is a credible source to explain this topic.

Wang, T., &amp Serebrov, J. (2013). Job Serebrovand Tova Wang, Voting Fraud and Voter Intimidation, [Draft] Report tothe U. S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) on PreliminaryResearch and Recommendations (2006). ElectionLaw Journal, 6(3),330-351. doi:10.1089/elj.2007.6314

The crimes on federal elections areclassified into three civil rightsviolation, voter fraud and voter registration fraud, and campaignfinance crimes. The campaign finance crimes include acceptance ofdonor amounts way higher than those stipulated in the law. Violationof civil rights includes intimidation of voters, threats, coercion,and any other tactic that aims at suppressing a person’s votingability. Fraud may involve allowing a name of a dead person to beused in elections.

Voter ID requirements have been strengthened bymany states to curb the increasing risk of illegal voting. Everyoneis mandated to report a fraud case suspected to the territorial orthe state election offices. Other areas to report include the localUS attorney’s office, an FBI officer, or Department of Justice, thecriminal divisionof the PublicIntegrity Section. The same applies if you witness a voter beingintimidated.

Job Serebrov and Tova Wang carried out a researchand reported, through this article, to the government about thestatus quo on election crimes and recommended some future practicerequirements. Moreover, they reviewed the state and federal laws onelections and upon this, they put forth the best ways forward.Therefore, this is a credible source on election crimes, asstipulated in the US election laws. As one reads this article, theycan decipher thecommonest crimes on elections that they most probably have beenignoring. Many Americans do not understand the figures and penaltiesassociated especially with the campaign financing crimes. Theelection laws are incomplete without any form of regulation onthe funding because no candidate shouldoverly be disadvantaged.Having this in mind, one can now see the need for this article onthis topic. Therefore, it is a veryreliable source in connection to the votinglaws in the US.